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Cornell university Library 
The geology ofpart.lNorth|;mber.^^^^^ 

Cornell University 

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W. GUNN, F.G.S., and 0. T. OLOUG-H, M.A., F.G.S. 

W. W. WATTS, M,A., F.G.S.) 







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AN&LBSBIt,— 77N, 78. 
BBDI'ORD8HIEB,-4aNW, NE, SW+, SEt, 52 NW, NE, 

SW, SE. 
BBBKSHIEB,— 7*, 8t, 12*, 13*, 34*, 45 SW*. 
BBBCKNOCKSHIEEt,— 36, 41, 42, 56 NW, SW, 67 NE, 


SWt. 52 SW. 
CABKMARTHENSHlEEt, 87, 38, 40, 41, 42 NW, SW, 66 

SW, 57 SW, SB. 
OAERNABVONSHlEEt.— 74 NW, 76, 76, 77 N, 78, 79 NW, 

OAMBEIDGESHIBE+.— 46 NE, *7*, 61*, 52 SE, 64*. 
OAEDIGANSHIEBt,— 40, U, 66 NW. 67, 58, 69 SB, 60 

OHBSHIEE,— 78 NB, NW, 79 NE, SB, 80, 81 NW*, SW*, 

88 SW. 
0ORNWALL+,-24t, 25+, 26+, 29+, 30+, 81+, S2+, & 83+. 
CUMBBBLAND,— 98 NW, SW*, 99, 101, 102 NB, NW, S W, 

106 SB, SW, NW 107. 
DBNBIGH+,— 7SNW, 74,76 NB, 7S NE, SE, 79 N W, S W, SE, 

80 SW. 
DEBB r 8HIEE+,— 62 NB, 63 NW, 71 NW, S W, SB, 72 NE, 

SE,81,82,88SW, SE. 
DEVONSHIEB+,-20+, 21+, 22+, 23+, 24+, 25+, 26+, & 27+. 
DOBSBTSaiEB,— 13, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22. Hor. Sect. 19, 20, 

21, 22, 66. 
DTJEHAM,— 102 NE, SE, 108, 106 NE, SE, SW, 106 SE. 

ESSEX,— 1*. 2*. 47*. 48*- 
FLINTSHIBE+.— 74 NE, 79. 

GLAMOBGANSHIEB+,— 20, 36, 37. 41, 4 42 SE, SW. 
GLOU0B8TBBSHIEB,— 19, 34*. 86, 48 NB, SW, SB, 44*. 
HAMP8HIBE,-8+, 9+, 10*. lit, 12*, 14, 15, 16. 
HBBErOEDSHIRB,— 42 NB, SB, 43, 56, 66 NB, SB. , 
HEBTFORDSHlEB,-lfNW, 7*, 46, 47*. 
HUNTINGDON,— 61 NW, 52 NW, NB, SW 64*. 65. 
KBNT+.— 1+ SW &SE, 2+, S+, 4*, 6+. 
LANCASHIRE,— 79 NB, 80 NW*, NB. 81 NW. 88 NW, 
SWt. 89, 90, 91. 92 SW, 98. 

e 88198. 

Sheets or Couutios marked + are illustrated by Genera] Ilemoin. 

•LEIOBSTEBSHIRB,— 53 NE. 62 NB, 68*,' 64*, 70*. 71 SB. 

LINC0LNSHIEE+,-ie4*, 66*, 69, 70*. 88*, 84*. 86*. 86*. 
MEEIONBTHSHIEE+,— 59 NB, SB, 60 NW, 74, 75 NB. 

MIUDLESEX+,— 1+ NW, SW, 7*, 8t. 
MONMOUTHSHIRE,— 36, 36, 42 SE, NE, 48 SW. 
MONTGOMEEYSHlRBt,— 66 NW, 59 NE, SE, 60. 74 SW. 

NORFOLK t,-:50 NW*. NB*, 64*, 65*, 66*, 67», 68*, 69. 
N0RTHAMPT0NSHIRB,-«4*, 45 NW, NE, 46 NW. 52 

NW, NB, SW, 63 NE, SW, 4 SE,es 8K, 64. 
NORTHUMBERLAND,— 102 NW, NE, 105, 106. 107, 108. 

109, 110, NW, SW*, NB, SE. 
NOTTINGHAM,— 70*, 71* NE. SB, NW, 82 NB*, SB*, SW, 

-83, 86, 87* SW. 
OXFORDSHIRE,-?*, IS*, 34*, 44*, 46*, 58 SB*. S.W. 
PEMBEOKESHIRB+,— 38, 39, 40. 41, 58. 
RADNOUSHIKE.-42 NW, NE, 66, 60 SW, SB. 
BUTLANDSHIRE+,— this county is wholly included 

within Sheet 64*. . 

SHROPSHIEB,— 65 NW, NB. 66 NE, 60 NE, SE, 61, 62 

NW, 73, 74 NE, SE. 
SUMEliSBTSHIEB,— 18, 19, 20, 21, 27, 36. 
STAFFORDSHIRE,— 54 NW, 66 NE, 61 NB, SE, 2, «S 

NW, 71 SW, 72, 78 NE, SB, 81 SE, SW. 
SUFFOLK,— 47,* 48,* 49*, 60*, 61*, 86* SE*, 67*. 
SURREY,— 1 SWt, 6t, 7*, 8t, 12t. 
SUSSEX,-4*, 6t, 6t, «t, 9t, lit. 
WAR WICKS HIEB,-44*, 45 NW, 68*, 64. 62 NB, SW, 

SE, 68 NW, SW, SB. 
WESTMORLAND, — 97 NW*. SW*. 98 NW, NE*, BE*. 101 

SB*. 102. 
WILTSHIRE,- la*. 13*. 14, IB, 18, 19, 84*, and SB. 
WOBCBSTEBSHIBE,— 43 NB, 44*, 54, SB, 62 SW, SE. «1 

YORKSHIEB,— 85-88, 91 NB, SE, 92-97*. 98 NE*. SE*, 102 

NE, SE, 108 SW. 8E, 104*. 








W. OIJNN, F.G.S., and C. T. CLOUGH, M..A.., F.G.S.. 

W. W. WATTS, M.A., F.G.S.) 






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The district described in the present Explanation is represented 
in Sheet 110 S.W. of the one-inch map of the Geological Survey. 
It comprises the northern slopes of the Cheviot Hills and the 
ground which stretches thence northwards to the River Tweed. 
Its area amounts to about 118 square miles, of which about one- 
half is occupied by the volcanic rooks of the Cheviot Hills, 
belonging to the Lower Old Red Sandstone, the remainder being 
composed of Carboniferous strata which, lying unconformably on 
the igneous masses, include representatives of the Scar Limestone 
and Yoredale groups of the Carboniferous Limestone series. 

The ground north of the Bowmont Water and the River Glen, 
rather more than two-thirds of the whole district, \Vas surveyed by 
Mr. William Gunn, the rest by Mr. C. T. Clough. The mapping 
of the whole district was carried on under the supervision of 
Mr, H. H. Howell. In the following pages, written by Messrs. 
Gunn and Clough, each author describes the tracts surveyed 
by him, and the relative share of each is marked by the initial 
letters appended to the several sections of the Memoir. 

The petrographical descriptions have been supplied by Mr. W. 
W. Watts. The fossils collected by the Survey during the progress 
of the field-work have been chiefly named by Mr. G. Sharmafl, 
but Mr. J. W. Kirkby has been good enough to determine 
the Ostracoda. 

The map to which the present Memoir is an explanation adjoins 
Quarter Sheet 109 N.E. These two maps together comprise the 
whole of the English part of the Cheviot Hills, and the structure 
of this interesting geological district will be found described in 
their respective explanatory Memoirs. 

The progress of petrographical research has shown that the 
rocks hitherto comprised under the name of " Porphyrite " are 
really more or less altered forms of Andesite. But until the 
required change of nomenclature can be carried into effect upon 
the maps of the Geological Survey already published, the old name 

e 8S198. 500.— 1/96. Wt. 8410. A 2 

has been retained in the following pages. The term " Porphyrite,"' 
however, will in future be restricted to such rocks as stand 
intermediate between andesiles and diorites, sometimes known as 
mioro-diorites, and of which some exatnples are described by 
Mr. Watts from the Cheviot area (p. 63). 

It may be added that MS. copies of the original field-maps 
on the scale of six inches to a mile, viz., Sheets 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 14, 
18, and 19, Northumberland, are deposited in this Ofl&ce for public-, 
reference, and that copies of ttese can be supplied through the 
agents |or the sale of the Survey maps. 

,j ,, , . • ' •; . . Director QeneraL i f . 

Geological Survey Office, : . • i! 

28, Jermyn Street?, London, S.W.,. 
. IStl^Pecember, 1895-.. ,- .; 


Pbepace, by the Director G-enekal - - - - - iii 

Chapter I.— Inthodtjction. PhysioalFeatures, Table of Formations, 
General Geological Description, Relation between the Form of 
the Ground and the Geological Structure - 1 

Chapter ll. — Sedimentart and Oontempoeaneotjs Igneous Eocks 
OP Lower Old Bed Sandstone Age. Porphyrites south of the 
EiTor Bowmont, Interbedded Sandstones, Interbedded Ashes ; 
Porphyrites north of the River Bowmont ; Petrological Notes 5 

Ohapieu III. — Lower Cabbonipeeous. The Kelso Traps, Cement- 
stone Group or Lower Tuedian, Detailed Description, Carboni- 
ferous Eocks of the Howtel Valley, The Carham Limestone 
and Associated Beds ... - - 14 

Chapter IY. — CARBONiPERoas — (continued). The Fell Sandstones 

Group or Dpper Tuedian ----- 29 

Chapter Y. — Cakbgniperous — [continued). The Scremerston Coal 

Group or Carbonaceous Division, Detailed Description - - 32 

Chapter YL— CASBONiPEROirs^coreimMei). Limestone Group or 
Calcareous Division - . - , . - 50 

Chapter YII.-^Inteusive Igneous Eocks. Granites, Intrusive Rocks 

other than Granite ; with Petrological Notes - - 60 

Chapter YIII. — Faults and Yeins - 67 

'Chapter IX. — Glacial Deposits. Carboniferous Area, Glacial 

Strise, Sands and Gravels, the Kaim at Wark, Porphyritic Area 71 

Chapter X. — Post Glacial Deposits. Alluvium, Peat Bogs, and 

Shell-marl - - ... 80 

Appendix I. — Lists or Fossils - . - - 86 

Appendix II. — List op Publications on the Geologi of the 
District ... . . . 89 


Tig. 1. Banded Porphyrite, Hart Heugh, Wooler - - -6 

,, 2. Curves in Banded Porphyrite, Hart Heugh, Wooler - 6 

.„ 3. The North Boundary Porphyrite Hills : view Soutu-wcsl 

from Westwood Moor, Wooler - . 9 

.„ 4. Lenticular Mass of Coal in Sandstone, Ford Quarry in New 

Plantation, South of the Common - - 30 

,,, 5. Coarse Red Porphyrite, Intrusive in Black and Purple 

I'orphyrite, Hart Heugh, Wooler - - - 63 

.,, 6. Section in Railway south of Cornhill 75 





Physical Features, Sfc, 

The portion of Northumberland to be described in this memoir 
embraces a large part of the English side of tlie valley of the 
Tweed, with ils tributafj'^, the Till. On the north and the west, 
it borders, respectively, upon the Scottish counties of Bewvick and 
Roxburgh. A small tract of ground in the N.E. of the area 
does not drain into the Tweed, but directly into the North Sea, 
principally by Haiden Dean Burn, which rises near Duddo, and 
by Berrington Burn, rising near Woodend. The streams which 
go direct into the Tweed are few and small, the Till taking 
nearly all the drainage. Of the few in the N.W. that do run 
into the Tweed, the Willow Burn, going by Presson, is the largesl. 
The principal tributary of the Till is the River Glen formed by 
the junction, at Kirknewton,' of two of the streams which drain 
the northern slope of the Cheviots, the Bowmont Water and the 
College Water. The Common Burn in the S.E. is a branch of 
the Wooler Water, another tributary of the Till. 

According to the old v«rse, the Tweed has the reputation of 
being a more rapid stream than the Till : — 

Tweed says to Till, 
"What gars ye rin so still ? " 

Till says to Tweed, 
" The' ye rin with, speed 

And I rin slaw, 

Whar ye droon ae mon 

I droon twa." 

Yet the Till has on the whole a more rapid fall than the 
Tweed. The lowest point of the district area — the Tweed, where 
it leaves the map at Weeper Island — is not much more than 30 feet 
above the sea-level, and the 50 feet contour continues by the 
river to beyond Wark, while it only goes up the Till as far as 
Old Heaton Mill. But tlie Till is sluggish where it joins the 
Tweed, and in that part of its course from Ford Forge to above 
its junction with the Glen, where it flows mainly in a deep bed 
through wide spreads of alluvial soil — the extensive flat of Milfield 
Plain stretching from Etal to near Wooler — ^which is a great 
feature of this district. This Plain, once the site of an old Take, 
covers about 1*2 square miles and averages about 150 feet above 
the sea, From it the ground rises pretty rapidly both east and 


■west to hills of over 500 feet above the sea, and on the south 
very abruptly to the conical points of Yeavering Bell l,182j and 
Humbleton Hill 977. The highest ground lies south of the 
Bowmont. ' Besides the points last mentioned we may note 
Newton Tors 1,762 and 1,702, Coldsmouth Hill 1,363, and 
Kilham Hill 1,108, This is a land of deep valleys and steep- 
sided hills. North of the Bowmont the highest points are 
Moneylaws Hill 805, Housedon Hill 877, Coldsides 844, and 
LantonHill 683. The part of the area adjacent to the Tweed is 
^or the most part a low anfd extremely undulating country of drift 
mounds enclosing peat bogs. Through this low ground the Till 
has cut for itself a beautiful ravine in the solid rock between 
Etal and Tillmouth. Thie ground east of the Till is a gently 
undulating plateau rising generally from north to south where 
the highest- points occur ; Wafchlaw 508, Goats' Crag, near 
Jioughtofi Linn 542, Summit E. of Fenton Hill 588 feet. 

Post Glacial. 




with interbedded 

Volcanic Eock 

(" Kelso Trap " 


Lower Old 
Red Sandstone : 
with interbedded 
Volcanic Rocks. 

Intrusive Igneous 

Table of Forpiations. 

r Alluvium and River Terraces. 
\Peat Bogs and Old Lake JDeposits. 
TSand and Gravel. 
\ Boulder Clay. 

Limestone Group or Calcareous" 

Scremerston Coal Group or 
Carbonaceous Division. 
<^ Fell Sandstone Group or Upper ^(d^ to d') 
Cement Stone ~1 Lower 

Group or Lower > Carboni- 
Tnedian. J' ferous. 

f Cheviot Porphyrites (Po 0^) 

I with 

<i Interbedded Ash (Ts O^) 

I and 

l^Ashy Sandstone and Conglomerate (0^). . 

rbolerite (B.) 7 

J Porphyrite (P.) 
1 Elvan(E.) 

[,Granite (Gs.) 

General Geological Description, 
The great spread of alluvial matter over Milfield Plain has 
•been already referred to. Its southern and western sides are 
fringed by bands of Lower Carboniferous Rocks which must also 
underlie the greater part/of the Plain itself. But to the southward 
and westward the area is occupied by the Porphyrites of Old 
Red Sandstone age, with some small exceptions. The northern 
ifoonndary of this area is probably a fault, as is also that part of it 


between Kirknewton and Wooler. The interbedded ashes and 
ashy sandstones occur only locally in small patches, hereafter to 
be particularly noted, and none of the intrusive rocks occupy 
much of the ground, except the granite, which is found at the 
southern edge of the area. The evidence for the bedded character 
and the exact age of the Porphyrites will be given in the -chapter 
devoted specially to them. i 

The old laras of Lower Carboniferous age commonly known as 
-the Kelso Trajis take up but small areas in the N,W., near the 
Tweed. The country E. of the Till, and the northern part of 
that to the west of that river are occupied by Carboniferous 
Rocks, and in addition to the patches round Milfield Plain already 
referred to, there is nn outlier of the same formation, probably 
faulted on the S. side, in the Hov^tel valley, S. of Flodden 
Edge, and a strip along the edge of the sheet S. of Wooler. In 
the Carboniferous rocks generally an easterly or north-easterly 
dip prevails, so that though the beds are rolling, we get roughly 
an ascending series in going eastward from Carham, In the 
western part of this area, however, little is seen of the beds 
except along the bands of the Tweed and Till. We passupwa/rds 
froin the Cai'ham Limestone which overlies the Kelso traps, 
through a thick and variable series of sandstonesj shales, amd 
impure limestones or cement stones, which occupy all the country 
■west of the Till, and part of the ground to the east of it, into a 
thick mass of sandstones, above 'which comes the Scremerston 
fcoal giboup. The latter, much faulted, wraps round the upper- 
most portion of the Carboniferous which takes up the N.E. 
corner of the area. It may be called the Limestone Group from 
its containing, in addition to the sandstones and shales, which it 
has in common with the coal group, a good many beds of thick 
workable limestones which are on the horizon of the Yoredale 
rocks and upper part of the Scar Limestone of Yorkshire. 

Relation between the Form of the Groimd and the Qeological 

With the exception of the alluvial flat of Milfield Plain, the 
Lower Carboniferous Rocks occupy the lowest ground — that 
bordering the Tweed. But here the prominent features are not 
due to hard rock at all, but are formed by ridges and mounds of 
Boulder Clay, sand, and gravel. The Fell Sandstones which 
underlie the Scremerston Coal Group, and some of the sandstones 
interbedded with the coals, form lines of crags here and there, 
but none of the sandstones in the Limestone Group do so, nor do 
the limestones themselves make features at the surface, so that 
the ground covered by the highest beds is devoid of geological 
features, and none of the small valleys seem to have any definite 
connexion with the geological structure. The Fell Sandstones 
actually reach to the highest positions above the sea east of the 
Till, but nvTthward from Ford they form lower ground tlian do 
the beds above. 


All the highest ground is in the south and is made up of 
bedded porphyrite?, the area of which is cut into two unequal 
parts by the valley of tlie Bowmont and its continuation, the 
Glen, but there is no obvious connexion between the course 
of these streams and any geological structure. Several of the 
reaches of the Till, however, north of Etal, run nearly along lines 
of strike. There is fair evidence that some of the Porphyrite 
ridges north of the Bowmont, which run N.E., as the Horse 
Ridge, that whicii runs from Moneylaws Hill to Branxton Hill, 
and that of Flodden Edge, indicate lines of strike, and that the 
dip is to the S.E., but in the great part of the porphyrite district 
this form of ground does not obtain. The steep rounded hills are 
more or less isolated from one another by deep valleys — the hills 
are usually smooth, not craggy, the crags being small and having 
generally no tendency to run into lines ; and it would seem that 
the dip here is very slight, the beds west of Wooler, e.g., being 
for the most part horizontal. W. G. 

Every here and there we are surprised by finding dry denes 
—deep-sided valleys — crossing watersheds, e.g., on Humbleton 
Hill, Akeld Hill, S- of the White Law, aud the Kettles near 
Wooler. They may possibly, in some cases, coincide with the 
outcrop of veins or other soft beds, but no such coincidences 
have been proved. Is it possible that they were caused by 
glacial streams ? 

Looking down the College from near its head the little valley 
that opens out at the opposite side of the Bowmont by Oanno 
Mill seems in nmch the same straight line, and might by a 
stranger be hastily assumed a direct continuation of it. The 
line of view passes, however, on the W. side of the Bell, Heath- 
pool, which is not the present course of the College, and also 
right across the Bowmont Valley. Standing on the top of the 
Bell one can scarcely help noticing how opposed it is to the 
previous direction of the College, and how, like a strong bulwark, 
it appears to have turned it aside to the east. The depression on 
the W. side is in a more* direct line than the one now followed, 
and with a bottom not much (above 100 feet) higher than the 
stream course. There are no indications, hovrever, of the burn 
ever having gone through this depression, and the bottom of it is 
not of drift, but of rock. The rock is partly crushed and veined, 
so that there may be some disturbance going through and, perhaps, 
causing it. 0. T. C. 

In much the same way the depression which runs between 
Shotton and the Coldsmouth Hills, and thence across a watershed 
to Longknowe and Kilham is continued to the N.E. by the 
Howtel valley, though the Bowmont passes right across the line. 
It is probable that this depression, which is continued to 
Flodden, runs along a line of strike, and for at least a part of its 
course coincides with a fault ; and it is possibly an ancient river 
valley. The part of the depression formed by the Howtel valley 
may have been a hollow in pre-carboniferous times for it now 
contains Lower Carboniferous rocks. W. G, 


Sedimentaet and Contemporaneous Igneous Rooks of 
Lower Old Red Sandstone Age. 

Porphyrttes South of the River Bowmont. 

The Porphyrite (andesite) is composed essentially of a few 
large and other smaller plagioclase crystals embedded in a 
compact matrix. Flakes of black mica, usually much decom- 
posed, are common, and in another variety there is augite and 
hypersthene (vide infr^). Small irregular specks of quartz are 
often visible under the microscope but not to the naked eye : 
they may be due to the decomposition of other mineral?. Purple 
is the most common colour of the ground mass, but this passes 
through all .shades into red or black. In the red varieties the 
felspars are generally larger ; the mica flakes being also larger 
and more numerous. 

Portions of the flows are sometimes excessively amygdaloidal, 
and have the larger axes of the cavities drawn out in particular 
directions. This is well seen in the neighbourhood of Easter 
Tor and at Wide Open Head (College Water). In a field, about 
half a mile N.N.E. of the White Hill, Heathpool, the cavities 
contain haematite, and as the rock is generally very near the 
surface, this gives a red tint to the soil. Quartz, chalcedony, 
cal'cite, and green eaith, or concentric layers of these, are else- 
where the commonest linings. Besides the division planes due 
to flow structure, or clearly dependent on the way the rock has 
originally cooled, there are others which cannot be satisfactorily 
grouped under either of these heads, e.g., near the junction of 
Common and Broadsti uther's Burns. They often vary in direction 
and inclination within short distances, and cut through lines of 
flow, or are inclined to the bases of features. The Watch Hill, 
Wooler Moor, affords a good instance of the fact last mentioned. 

Fragments included in the flows are usually abundant. In an 
exposure ^ mile S.S.W. of the Green Castle Camp there are 
many hard red sandstone pieces in a purple porphyrite with large 
red felspars. In the Kettles (Wooler) and near the Wishing 
Well similar fragments are noticeable. In other places the 
fragments are of green or gray sandstone. These all closely 
resemble the thin sandstones which are found interbedded with 
the flows. 

The " Pitchstone Porphyrites," i.e., the porphyrites that still 
remain of a distinctly vitreous character, are best seen on Kilham, 
Longknowe, Haddan, and Coldsmouth Hills. They vary in 
colour from black and purple to a brown chocolate, and deep blood 
red. Often bands of different colour occur disposed in irregular 
curves ; black and blood red usually accompanying one another, 
and the red bands are sometimes suddenly interrupted at short 


intervals. Where there are not bands of red in the black, we 
still get the same contrast of colour from the occurrence of 
numerous irregular siliceous strijigs deeply stained with haematite. 
In the field they generally weather in massive pillowy blocks 
which often show signs of exfoliation. - ''■'-'■> 

It appears that these glossy rocks usually contain both augite 
and hypersthene, and might be called Hypersthene Andesites.* 
They must • still, however, be considered essentially one with the 
surrounding flows in age and in character, the present differences 
being due to original differences in the mode of cooling, or to 
subsequent alteration. Sometimes we get banded porphyrites of 
■different colours which do not now appear glossy. , Good examples 

JFiG. 1. — Banded Pprphyrite Hart Heugli, WooUr. Scale,'^ 

of Nature, r. 

• of these occur near the head of Common Burn, Hart Heugh, &c. 
From Hart Heugh we give two diagrams to show the irregular 
and occasionally false-bedded appearance the bandsi sometimes 
have. They seem to hsLveno relation to the lower surface of the 

-F;g. 2. — Curves in Banded Porphyrite Hart Heugh, Waaler, 
Scale, tV of Nature. 

-flow they belong to, for while they are twisting about in every 
direction, the feature at the base of the scar continues horizontally 
all round the hill They must however, indicate some movement 
which was going on in the lava itself, and with this agree the facts 
that the longer axes of the felspar crystals and of the amygda- 
loidal cavities can often be seen pointing in the same directions as 
the containing bands. (See Figs. 1 and 2;) 

'* See J. J. H. Teall, Geol. Mag., 1883, pp. 100, 145, 2.52, 


The glossy black porphyrite of Haddan Hill is in a wonder- 
fully soitnd condition, and in a microscope section the felspar 
Crystals are seen to have enclosed numerous small blebs, &c. o£ 
glassy matter at various periods of their growth : the blebs are ■ 
now arranged in rudely concentric bands round the edges of the 

The sides of the Trows at the foot of Humbleton Burn ai-e 
formed in great part of soft decomposing porphyrite. In a small 
sike which runs into Common Burn about ^ mile west of Watch 
Hill ^Wooler Common) there is another exposure of similar 
gravel-like rock. The felspar crystals are still distinguishable, 
but embedded loosely in the matrix and. readily separable. 
•■ Clay Beds forined from kaolinization are rare, nevertheless 
this method of decomposition is common. In a microscopic 
section from near Hare Law, Paston, the felspar crystals have 
been entirely converted into kaolin (?) picked out with numerous 
minute specks of dissociated quartz. The rock was evidently 
once porphyrite, for the angles of the felspars are still clear and ' 
sharpjand there are no noticeable fragmraits; But ash is more 
generally liable to such decomposition, for the hollows, &c. between 
the fragments allow the decomposing agent to advance more readily. . 

Interbedded Sandstones. — The interbedded sandstones are 
sometimes so thin and local that on hasty examination they might 
be taken for included fragments. That they are not so is shown 
by their curving outlines and the way they sweep roimd knobs of 
porphyrite or fill cracks therein. They are generally green-grey, 
bright copper green, dark grey or red. The former varieties could 
sometimesin a band-specimen hardly be distinguished from some 
of the Silurian rocks of the neighbourhood, but in the field there 
is seldom any difficulty, as large exposures nearly always show 
broken crystals of felspar, or bits of porphyrite. The best 
exposures occur 300 yards S.S.E. of Earlehillhead, ^ mile S.W. 
of Heathpool, in the burn E. of Easter Tor, in the burn 300 yards 
above Old Yeavering, in Hetha Burn about \ mile N. of Trough- 
burn House, and in the burn close close by Harelaw House 
(Bowmont). Sometimes the porphyrite pieces are so large and 
so frequent that the bed should be more properly termed agglo- 
merate. There is an exposure of this kind by the weir a little 
below the foot of the College Water. The bed seems cutoff on 
the S.E. by a fault. 

!.. There are many beds about which there is doubt whether they 
should be called ash or ashy sandstone. 

Interbedded Ashes. — Of the undoubted ashes the best sections 
occur at Heathpool Linn and ^ mile east of Harelaw House. In 
the latter the ground mass of the ash is purple in colour, and the 
ash is. disposed in places in thin irregular nearly vertical bands. 
The fragments, of porphyrite or felspar, also have their longer 
axes generally verticnl. At Heathpool Linn the ash is sometimes 
rather loose in texture and contains cavities round the edges of 
the larger fragments. Sometimes the cavities have been subse- 
quently filled with quartz : at others they still remain empty^ 


In the finer asli there appears to be other and smaller cavities which 
in appearance closely resemble those usually to be found in the lava 
flows. Some portion of the section is not simply ash, but should 
rather be described as lava surface, for it includes sound por- 
phyrite both with and without fragments and bits of ash enclosed. 
Another good exposure of a lava surface occurs at Tom 
Tallon's Crag near the head of Akeld Burn. It is possible 
occasionally to get a hand-specimen which shows at one end 
sound porphyrite, and at the other a rock which, taken by itself 
would certainly be classed as ash, and between the two a gradual 
passage from one to the other. 

In default of good sections it is scarcely possible to distinguish 
between an ash and a subsequently brecciated porphyrite. On 
the E. side of Hare Law (Paston) and on Whaup Moor (W. of 
Thompson's Walls) are many small exposures of grey and yellow 
rotten rock. Felspar crystals are seldom recognisable and the 
rock is cut through by many thin irregular strings of quartz and 
hsematite crossing one another at all angles. As the rock is 
more crushed and more readily decomposable along these strings 
than anywhere else, we get an ashy appearance, the boundaries of 
the apparent fragments being the strings. It is possible that 
some of the rock is true ash. On the White Hill, a little more 
than ^ mile W.S.W. of Kilham, is another doubtful ashy-looking 
rock. It has a white siliceous appearance, with here and there 
red or dark grey flinty streaks. There are few definite fragments 
seen, and in one exposure the felspar crystals are large, clear, 
glassy and apparently unbroken. 

Physical features in the Porphyrite Series are not uncommon, 
but they cannot usually be traced far, and so they throw little 
light on the structure of the district. No doubt, occasionally, 
they are caused by the wearing back of soft interbedded ashy 
sandstone or ash ; but more usually no trace of such interbedded 
rocks can be found, and they must be considered due to the 
softer parts-r-such as the amygdaloidal bands — of the lava flows 
themselves. In this way we can understand the great irregularity 
of many of them, and the way they run into one another. At 
other times they are due to veins or intrusive dykes ; but. the 
features of these car only occur in fairly straight lines. The 
'best features occur in the following places, N.W. side of Colds- 
mouth Hill, Sinkside Hill (College Burn), Easter and Wester 
Tors, Hare Law, Watch Hill, and Hart Heugh. Some of these 
are as distinct as those in carboniferous beds. 

The hills are generally steep and smooth with an abundant 
spring of grass, and they support large flocks of sheep. They 
contrast strongly with the Carboniferous sandstone hills on the 
other side of the Till. C. T. 0. 

Porphyrites North of the River Bowmont. 

Most of the general statements in the foregoing account of the 
porphyriles will apply equally well to the same series of rocks 


on the north side of the rivers Bowmont and Glen, but the 
variety is not, perhaps, so gi'eat and the areas of interbedded 
sandstone and ash or agglomerate are too small to be marked on 
the one-inch map. Owing to this scarcity of interbedded ashes, 
&c., and to the general uniform character of many of the old lava 
beds taken in conjunction with the great thickness of the separate 

Fig. 3. — The North ^Boundary Porphyrite Hills : view South-west 
from Westwood Moor, Wooler. 

\ W 


beds it has been impossible to make out any general order of 
successioni But it would ■ seem pretty certiiia 'that the northern 
boundary from the Scottish border at , the ' Horse llidge to 
Mindrurn Mill ScAr is nearly coincident With the-r strike of the 
bedsjfas it is again from Downham to Branxton Hill and that 
the beds dip to the S.E. From this it would seem that the 
ridge of Flodden, in a, parallel line of strike — forms a higher 
series of -beds, and the hollows of the Kilham.and Howtel valleys 
— in a continuous line — have been worn out in the softer beds. 
The beds forming Housedon HiH and Coldside Hill, &c., on the 
south side of the Howtel Valley, should then make up a stilt 
higher series, if there is no large fault along the Howtel Valley. 
As will be pointed out furtlier there is some evidence for a fault 
along the S. side of this valley. Certain it is that there is a marked 
difference in the shape of the ground between the two sides of 
this valley, the ridgy plateau of the north side is contrasted with 
the more distinctly separate and somewhat conical-shaped hills of 
the south side. In conjunction with tliis there is also a general 
difference in the character of the porphj'rite — ^that on the north 
side being purple or greyish blue, while that on the south side is 
reddish and amygdaloidal. There are some marked bedded 
features in the porphyrite on the N.W. side of Moneylaws Hill,, 
805', and there are also some S.W. of Kippie. In the area south 
of the Glen some of the beds would seem to be approximately 

The evidence for the faulted northern boundary, and also for 
that south of the Glen will be given when we come to treat of the 
Carboniferous Rocke. It is not possible within the bounds of the 
present sheet to determine the exact age of these old lavas. We- 
know that they must be older than the Carboniferous for we see 
the latter, in Sandy House Burn, south of Milfield, resting on the 
porphyrite, and containing at the base a breccia madei up of the 
older rock. But nowhere within this area do we get to the base 
of the porphyrites. For this the observer will have to go to the 
heads of the Coquet and the Kale, on the W. of the Cheviot, 
where this old volcanic seiies may be seen, at Makendon and 
Philip, resting on the upturned edges of Silurian Rocks, and 
where its Lower Old Red Age can be substantiated.* 

In the area north of the Bowmont the small exposures of ash 
and ashy sandstone will be described with the porphyrites. There 
is a small section in ashy-looking porphyrites with green sand- 
stone in an old quarry at the north end of Bowmont Hill, but 
there is good porphyrite close by. It is mostly purple or dark 
purple here, and on Camp Hill to the northward. Boih these 
hills extend to the N.E., and they may be strike features like that 
of the Horse Ridge to the north. Here the porphyrite is bluish 
or dull purple with a green caa'. There is a quarry by the road- 

* See a series of papers by (Prof.) J. Geikie in " Good Words " for 1876, vol. 
xvi. pp. 11-14, 82-86, 264-270, 331-337; reprinted in "Fragments of Earth 
Liore," 1893. 


side I mile E. of Presson Hill where muck of the porphyrite is 
decomposed, some wenthering sphasroidal ; and to eastward it 
contains iragment-like lumps. The bed of Miudrum Mill Crag 
seems to be a higher one, mostly coarse grained, dull purple or 
greenish porphyrite, much decomposed at the west end near 
some N. and S. joints or veins. South of the ordnance station 
thin bands of ash (or one *?) are seen in two places. At one of 
the places, 60 yqrds south from the summit, there is, in the 
upper part, much fine-grained feistone. This band seems dipping 
W.N. W. and striking N.N.E. across the general line of the mass. 
N.E. of the ordnance station, about 60 yards, fragoients of fine 
felstone are seen in the coarser porphyrite. These may be parts 
of one bed. There are three places where porphyrite projects 
through the gravel north of Mindrum Mill, and in one of these,. 
E. of Mindrum Mill Scar, there is a quarry in coarse-grained 
pale or dull purple porphyrite. There are some N.N.E. joints, 
(or faults?) and planes dipping E.S.E. which might be mistaken 
for bedding. The boundary east of this is very doubtful. North 
and west of Downham the porphyrite is mostly of a dull or 
bluish purple or greenish colour. Along the sike S. of Downham 
the rock seems much filtered, being fiinty looking, veined, and 
with red patches or spots. Rock of much the same character 
occurs in the field east of the Camp Hill. N.E. of Mindrum 
Mill School, about 250 yards, there is a vein of hgematite 
running N.N.E. v>rith horizontal slickensides. The rock is ashy 
with bits of green sandstone between Moneylaws Hill and Burnt 
Heugh. "Where it is much decomposed it often seems fragmental, 
but may not be really so. 

About Barley Hill north of Thoniington, there is much sound 
porphyrite of a dark grey or bluish grey colour, with glassy 
felspar in places, and about Wester Hill 570, the rock is dull 
purple, or dull blue green with a purple tinge. Part is much 
decomposed and sphjeroidal, or amygdaloidal with blebs of quarts 
There are many laniinse simulating beds dipping eas.t and south. 
On the N.W. side of Moneylaws Hill the rock is rather smashed 
along N. and S. veins, and decomposed, and in the N.E. end of 
the field in which the summit is we see a smash with fragments 
arranged nearly vertically. Inhere is an interesting section in the 
burn between East Moneylaws and Branxton Hill where coarse 
breccia is seen for 6 or 7 yds. along the burn, dipping 25° to the 
S.E. surrounded by porphyrite greyish or greenish purple, some 
reddish and amygdaloidal. Higher up the stream the rock is 
decomposed into a grey clay containing lumps of porphyrite. In 
a quarry to the eastward is a bit of agglomerate or breccia 4-5 
yards long and 3 or 4 ft. thick striking N. ] 5 E. and perhaps dip- 
ping ea^t. It seems ctit off" on the north side by a small fault, 
and there may be another fault on the W. side running N.N.E. 
Part of the purple porphyrite has red streaks, and the laminae 
dip E. There is another quarry to the north where the numerous 
laminae are twisted but mostly dip E. In a field south of 
Branxton Moor, and near the house, the purple porphyrite is 
e 881&S. Ts 


largely amygdaloidal and contains an;ates, and In an old quarry 
N. of the burn a bit of flinty ash is seen for 10 yards. 

About Flodden the rock is mostly purple of various shades. In 
the most westerly of the quarries in Flodden Plantation the rock 
is much veined and sparred along a N.N.W. line, and there is a 
synclinal in the curved jointing, the laminae dipping both E. and 
■W. in the quarries. N. of Branxton allotment the laminae dip 
N.E. 44°-60°, and W. of the house about 400 yards is a remark- 
able quarry where the lamina between the jointing are very thin, 
from ^ an inch upwards. At the surface these dip N.E. from 60° 
upwards to vertical; they then bend round in a curve below, and 
dip S.W. This structure seems confined to the west side of the 
quarry, N.W. of Howtel are two quarries, one on either side of 
the long narrow plantation running N.W. In the easternmost 
quarry, near the footpath going to Branxton Allotment, the 
porphyrite is a good deal decomposed, mostly purple, with some 
green and yellow earthy minerals in tiie amygdaloidal cavities. 
On the S.W. side of the quarry is a patch of ash or breccia of 
large angular and rounded fragments of porphyrite with bits of 
green grit. In the quarry west of the plantation much of the 
rock has a fragmentary look with bits of green sandstone. It is 
mostly purple porphyrite on the W. side, but on the N. side there 
is a vein-like mass of thin greenish grit in nearly horizontal beds. 
The S. side is an aggiomerate. S.W. of Milfield Hill f of a mile 
there are bits of green sandstone and green micaceous stone seen 
in the road. Around Housedon Hill the porphyrite is of a 
reddish colour, and this variety is pretty general S. of the Howtel 
Valley. On the E. side of the hill it is very amygdaloidal, with 
. quart z blebs. Mica is very prominent in the rock in places on 
Lanton Hilljmd Watch Hill, and E. of Coldside Hill the narrow 
jointing so often referred to is very noticeable. W. G. 

The following microscopical notes on the lavas have been 
furnished by Mr. W. W. Watts : — 

The better preserved examples of these rocks are much alike 
in general character, and consist of andesites more or less altered 
into the type commonly spoken of in Britain as porphyrites. 
They are invariably porphyritic in structure, and contain crystals 
of felspar, often with one or two species of pyroxene. These 
crystals are embedded in a compact paste of a purple, reddish, or 
brown colour, which gives a dominant tint to the rock. 

Under the microscope the ground-mass is seen to consist of 
microHths of striated felspar with magnetite dust, set in a brown 
glass ; usually, these substances are pretty evenly distributed, but 
in one case, at least (E. 2298 from a field west of Downham), the 
ground is mottled with patches alternately dark and 'light in 
tint, the darker patches being richer in glass and less rich in 
felspar. The rock from a field near Barley Hill, Thornington 
(E. 2299), has a crypt ocrystaliine matrix, in which interstitial 
quartz is recognisable ; this rock is more acid than any other 
from the district which I have had the opportunity of observinf. 


Mr. Teall* came to the conclusion that the porphyritic felspar 
was labradorite, and my observations are quite in conformity with 
his. It exhibits twinnino; according to both the albite and 
Carlsbad laws, and is usually zoned, the outer layers giving a 
higher extinction angle than the inner ; the larger are almost 
invariably zoned with inclusions, especially at the margin, and 
very often the whole crystal is honey-combed with inclusions 
of the matrix of the rock, which almost isolate small bits of the 
felspar nearly circular in outline. The smaller phenocrysts of 
felspar are often water-clear and devoid of inclusions. 

Although felspar is the chief and at times the sole porphyritic 
ingredient, one or tvto species of pyroxene are usually present, 
sometimes in considerable quantity. Hypersthene is usually the 
more abundant species, and it occurs in crystals of prismatic habit 
exhibiting the faces of the prism and the pinacoids. They are 
strongly pleochroic in red and green colours, are often free from 
decomposition, but occasionally altered into bastite or even into 
pilitic amphiijoie, and tend to occur in clusters, either by 
themselves or with the augite and sometimes the felspar. The 
augite is usually in smaller and less perfect crystals or grains, 
which are colourless or pale brown, slightly pleochroic, and, like the 
hypersthene, sometimes enclosed in the felspar, thus showing that 
they crystallised first. Both forms of pyroxene in some of the rocks 
are entirely decomposed into aggregates of chlorite and calcite, so 
that it becomes impossible to call the rock anything but a 
pyroxene-andesite (Lanton Quarry, west side E. 2301); in other 
cases it can be called hyperstiiene- or augite-andesite according to the 
predominance of either mineral. Most probably both minerals 
have always been present in anv considerable mass of the rock. 

A few larger grains of magnetite are generally found amongst 
the porphyritic crystals, and a border of iron-ore outlines the 
hypersthene crystals when they are much altered. W. W. W. 

* Geol. Mag., Dec. II. vol. x. (1883) p. 346. 

B 2 



The Kelso Tkaps. 

These are old lavas of early Carboniferous age. In this area 
tbey occupy but small spaces, and are jirobably, in every case, 
inliers of the upper beds of the series, so that we do not see their 
relation to the beds on which they rest. But on the Scottish side 
of the border they cover a large area where they rest on rocks 
ihat have been generally regarded as of Upper Old Red Sand- 
stone age, so that these traps have been taken as the dividing line 
between the two formations. 

In genera!, within the limits of this area, the rock is of a grey 
colour and varies in grain from coarse to finely crystalline. It is 
often largely amygdaloidal with inclusions as large as walnuts and 
in several places is vesicular and soft or crumbly. 

Its general composition is basic, and is that of an altered 
dolerite or melaphyre. A specimen from Stichill in Roxburghshire 
about 5 miles from its outcrop in the Tweed in this map has been 
described by Mr. TeaJI.* The analysis lie gives shows the per- 
centage of silica to be 47 ' 53, and the specific gravity 2 • 95. W.G. 

All the examples of these rocks, which have been sliced, are 
olivine-diabases. The trap is a dark grey rock, speckled over with 
rusty spots, and showing occasional porphyritic crystals of felspar, 
some of which are as much as J inch ■ long. It is very much 
decomposed, and now retains few or none of its original constituents. ' 
There is a plexus of laths of plagioclase felspar outlined by grains of 
magnetite, fitted close together in a small quantity of interstitial 
matter. A good deal of calcite and chlorite occurs in the lacunae 
between the other constituents, and in the amygdaloidal cavities 
which are sometimes lined with calcite and filled with chlorite. 

The rusty spots are due to great numbers of brown pleochroic 
crystals of iddingsite, which are unmistakeably pseudomorphs- 
after olivine. Whether or no any pyroxene has been present 
cannot be determined from this slide, but Mr. Teallf has observed 
this mineral in a specimen collected outside this sheet. One 
phenocryst of felspar occurs in the slide ; Mr. Teallf determined 
the porphyritic crystals from Stichill as anorthite. W. W. W. 

There are, owing to somewhat sharp undulations of these beds, 
no less than seven or eight districts, small detached areas, where 
the eruptive rocks occur, three of these being in and near Carham 
Bnrn and two in the river Tweed. The best sections are in the 
Tweed, opposite Oarham Hall, in the railway cutting west of 

, • Geol. Mag., Dec, II. vol. x. (1883), p. 258. 
t /ftiA.pi). 258-259. 


Shidlaw Tile Works, at BouUa Crag to the nortli of this, and 
along the wooded English bank of Carham Burn, south of the 
railway, where, in a quarry in grey diabase is seen a vein of quartz 
and a zeolite (possibly laumonite) running N.N.W. To the north 
of this, between the railway and the road, and at about an equal 
distance from either, is a thin ashy band seen in a quarry on the 
east side of the burn. Where the upper beds are clearly seen, 
ashy bands often alternate with the overlying purple and red 
shale with cement stones and limestone, as may be seen in Carham 
Burn, a little north of the road near the keeper's cottage. 

In the small area coloured as trap, east of Carham Church, there 
is no rock seen, but its existence is inferred from, the position of 
-the limestone in the bank above. 

Near Wark West Common the rock is not well seen, but there 
are remains of two old quarries to the west of the house, and at 
the south end of the patch coloured there is a rather poor section 
in amygdaloidal trap close to the burn. 

There is an undoubted outcrop in a hill between Sunnylaws and 
West Learmouth, but nearest to the latter place. It does not 
appear to have been quarried at all, but loose angular pieces of 
greenish and grey amygdaloid are plentifully scattered in many 
places over the top of the hill for a distance of 300 or 400 yards. 

Cementstone Geoup oe Lowee Tuedian. 

It will be advisable to give an historical sketch of the diflFerent 
views as to the age, &c., of these beds which are so well shown 
along the Tweed and Till. In 1814, Dr. T. Thomson included 
them in his Independent Coal Formation which comprised all 
beds below the Newcastle Coal Field, in Northumberland. In 
the same year N. J. Winch contributed a paper to the Geological 
Society accompanied by a map in which the beds in question are 
coloured as Mountain Limestone and Lead Measures like the 
rest of Northumberland north and west of the Newcastle Coal 
Field.* But these views, substantiately correct, in making the 
beds Carboniferous, did not generally prevail for some time. 

In Greenough's Geological Map (1820) the Vale of the Tweed 
is coloured as New Red Sandstone and the error is repeated in 
the little map accompanying Conybeare and Phillip's Geology of 
England and Wales in 1822, where we see an oval -of New Red 
Sandstone in the Tweed Valley surrounded by the colour which 
represents Millstone Grit and Limestone Shale. This notion that 
the beds were of New Red age survived till 1831 when it was 
restated by R. D. Thomson, who also considered the Carham Lime- 
stone to be the genuine Magnesian Limestone underlying the New 
Red. In W. Smith's smaller Geological Map of England and Wales 

* See referencfe to these papers in Appendix, p. 89. 


published in 1828, we get another view of their age, perhaps a 
little nearer the truth. The upper part of the Tweed and all the 
country west of the Till is coloured as Red Rhab and Dunstone, 
with interspersions of Limestones (Old Red Sandstone), while the 
lower part of the Tweed and the country east of the Till is 
coloured vriih the coal districts. Thus for a time we see these 
beds oscillated between the New Red and the Old Red. But by 
the year 1831 they had generally come to be acknowledged a& 
Carboniferous and they were so regarded in papers published 
about that time by Winch, Witham, and N. Wood, in the 
Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland. 

It is, however, to Prof. Sedgwick that we owe the first clear 
statement of their true position in the Carboniferous Formation. 
In his Address to the Geological Society (183 L), he says "The 
beds of sandstone, shale, and limestone, forming the base of the 
Carboniferouri system in the basin of the Tweed, are often deeply 
tinged with red oxide of iron, and have been sometimes compared 
with the Old Red Sandstone. To the NewRedSandstone they have 
unquestionably no relation, and I should rather compare them 
(especially as the Old Red Sandstone of the North of England 
seldom exists but as a conglomerate, and is seen in that form on 
the flanks of the Cheviot Hills) with the red beds of mountain 
limestone and sandstone, 'which, both in Cumberland and 
Lancashire, sometimes form the base of the whole Carboniferous 
Series.*. De la Beche, two years later, gives additional informa- 
tion of Sedgwick's views from MS, supplied by him — "He 
(Sedgwick) does not therefore believe that the' Carboniferous Red 
Sandstone of the Tweed is the representative of the Old Red Sand- 
stone of Herefordshire ; but that it is superior to the Old Red 
Sandstone, and is about of the age of the great scar limestone of 
Yorkshire and Cvoss Fell."f Sedgwick was undoubtedly right 
in his correlation, as the limestone series of Northumberland is,, 
in the main, the representative of the Yoredale beds of Yorkshire,, 
most of the Scar Limestone of the south being represented in the: 
north by sandstone and shale. 

The late Grenrge Tate, of Alnwick, who has made numerou8= 
and valuable contributions to our knowledge of the rocks of 
Northumberland, in 1853 claimed for these beds a distinct 
division in the Carboniferous Formation, well marked by the 
abundance of the fish-remains, by the comparatively small 
amount of carbon, and by the slight indication of marine 
conditions.f And in 1856 he proposed for them the name 
Tuedian,^ of which a characteristic description is given in 1859, 
as follows : -" The Tuedian Group. In 1856 I applied this 
name to a series of bed?, lying below the Mountain Lime- 
stone, which are largely developed on the Tweed. They consist 
of grey, greenish, and lilac shales, sandstones, slaty sandstones 

* Proc. Geo!. Soc, vol. i. p. 287. 
t Geological Manual, Ed. 3, 1&33, pp. 391, 392. 
j Proc. Berwickshire Nat. Club, vol. iil. p. 135. 
'§ Ibid., vol, iii. p. 219. 


sometimes calcareous, thin beds of argillaceous limestone and 
chert, and a few buff magnesian limestones. Stigmaria ficoides, 
Lepidodendron, coniferous trees, and other plants occur in some 
parts of the group ; but there are no workable beds of coal. The 
Fauna consists chiefly of fish-remains, modiolse, and entomostraca. 
In one bed on the Tweed orthocerata and pleurotomarise — 
marine moUusks — are associated with coniferous trees. The 
whole group is especially distinguished by the absence of 
brachiopods which are abundant in the overlying Mountain 
Limestone. It forms a marked transitional seiies; intercalated 
between the Mountain Limestone and the Old Red Sandstone. 
Generally freshwater and lacustrine conditions are indicated ; and 
when marine remains do occur they are accompanied with plants 
which appear to have been swept into a shallow estuary."* With 
the exception of the statement that these beds are below the 
Mountain Limestone, the above is a good account. It is true 
they lie below the Mountain Limestone of this part of North- 
umberland, but this represents only a part of the rocks so-called 
further south. Tate did not at this time define precisely the 
upper limit of the Tuedian, but some years later he gave, in 
several publications mentioned below, an admirable and natural 
classification for local purposes of the Carboniferous rocks of 
Northumberland below the Millstone Grit, which is substantially 
the one adopted in our description. t 

Tate divided the Mountain Limestone into two parts — an 
upper calcareous group and a lower Carbonaceous group — the- 
former embracing all the beds from the Millstone Grit down to the 
Dun Limestone, and the latter extending thence downwards to 
the top of the Tuedian group : thus g'ving three main divisions 
as shown below : — 

Calcareous Group. — Distinguished by good workable lime- 
tones, with alternations of sandstone, shale, and coal, and_ 
by the large number of marine organisms in the calcareous 
strata. Thickness about 1,700 feet. 

Carbonaceous Group. — Marked by the number, thickness, 
and richer quality of its coal seams ; limestones thin and 
generally impure with fewer marine organisms — thickness 
about 900 feet. 

Tuedian Formation. — As before described. Thickness, 
about 1,000 feet (but this is much too thin ; it is probably 
quite 2,000 feet). 

The only addition made to the classification of Tate has been 
the interpolation between the Carbonaceous Group and the 
Tuedian, of the Fell Sandstone Group — a name applied to a 
thick mass of sandstones, which sometimes seem by Tate to have 
been considered part of the Carbonaceous Group, and at other 
times to have belonged to the Tuedian. 

* Proc. Berwickshire Nat. Club. vol. iv. p. 151. 

t Ibid., vol. V. p. 283 (1866). Nat. Hist. Trans, of Northuniberland and Durham, 
vol. ii. p. 6(1868). History of Alnwick, vol. ii. pp. 444 (1868-9). 

18 Lowrat cakbonifeeous. 

" ' Detailed Description. 

The strip of Lower Carboniferous Rock west of Milfield Plaia 
has in the main an tmfaulted and unconformable junction with 
the 'Porphy rite on which it rests, and north of Milfield Hill there 
are- several small outliers of the Carboniferous seen within th6 
porphyrite boundary, so that it is quite possible the boundary is 
more irregular than is represented. 

At Milfield Hill, as I was informed by the late Mt. Grey, a 
well was sunk into sandstone, which rock was also found in the 
sawpit ; while the porphyrite come? close to the surface not far 
off ; 80 that the boundary between them must run through the 
stackyard. The two rocks crop out near one another in the fields 
to the north, and in one place — in the field N. of Whitton Hill, 
angular pieces of sandstone, reddish inside and yellowish outside, 
containing much calcite are seen. These belong to the basement- 
bed which rests on the porphyrite. (See m/ra.) 

About i mile S.W. of Milfield Hill the two recks are seen , 
together in a small burn, yellowish sandstone dipping E. nearly at 
10°, seems to abut against decomposed porphyrite. A little further 
down the stream dull red sandstone is seen, and it is exposed 
again about 70 yards from the junction, still dipping about 10° 
to E. Much reddish sandstone was dug out, in draining a field to 
the S.W. of Milfield. The finest section, however, is in Sandy 
House Burn S. of Milfield, which is probably one of those seen 
by Sedgwick — as mentioned by De la Beche, who says, "On the 
confines of Scotland the red conglomerates appear (though Prof. 
Sedgwick considers rarely) at the base of the Carboniferous 
, Series. He has seen them occupying this position on the flanks 
of the Cheviot Hills in two or three places pointed out by 
Mr. Culley of Coupland Castle/'* 

The Sandy House Burn crosses the road from Milfield to 
Lanton about i mile 3. of the former place. Going up the stream 
ifrom the road we see nothing but coarse torrential gravel for 
about 150 yards, and then we see sandstone almost continuously 
(or nearly 400 yards till we come to its base 50 or 60 yards inside 
the wood. The lowest bed is a breccia 1 to 2 feet thick, containing 
a "ood many porphyrite fragments, derived from the rock on 
which it vests, and it is very calcareous owing to the abundance 
of calcite scattered through it. The dip is E.KE. 10°-12°, nearly 
in the direction of the stream, and the sandstone is variegated, 
white, grey, and pink, with many hard red concretions of 
calcareous grit. About 60 yards below the wood where the 
sandstone flattens, we come suddenly on to porphyrite again, 
which can be seen in the stream for 30 yards. This rock seems 
to be brought up by a fault, which bounds it on the west, but 
this fault may not be large, as the thickness of beds passed over 
from the upper junction is not very great, and probably the 
original surface on which the sandstone was deposited was uneven. 

• Geological Manual, Ed. 3, p. 391. 


Soft red sandstone with partings of red clay now keep the 
stream for some 50 yards, dipping eastward 10°-12°. They then 
flatten, and we get another exposure of the red pcrphy rite which 
seems to reach nearly to the bottom of the field. Again, we get 
on to the sandstones at the fence, and the dip, still in the same 
direction, is considerably increased, being as much as 20°— 25. 
The character of the rock varies a good deal, e.g., near the fence 
we find fine-grained, white, pink, and deep red Sandstone, 
vehied. Lower down is the following section : — 
Eed sandstone 1 £t. 
End clay 2 ft. 

Yellowish ru'bbly sandstone 2 ft. 

Massive yellowish soft sandstone with lumps of hard red calcareous 
Again, we come on to red sandstone, and lower still, the last 
clear section shows us soft yellow, red, and grey sandstone 
dipping E. 25° under torrential gravel. Between this and the 
River IBowmont to the southward no Carboniferous rock is seen, 
so that the boundary is uncertain. 

It is difficult to say anything about the exact age of these red 
sandstones in relation to the lowest rocks about Carham. Tliey 
have sometimes been regarded as belonging to the Old Red Sand- 
stone, but it seems more appropriate to regard them as the base- 
meat beds of the Carboniferous Formaiion wherever they occur, 
and here, for all we know, they may be of more recent date than 
the formation of the Carham Limestone, there being a marked 
overlap of the Tuedian Beds (which seem nowhere so thick as 
they are in the Tweed valley), across the Cheviot porphyrites. 

W. G. 
The Carboniferous beds south of Milfield Plain are best seen 
in Humbleton, Akeld, and Old Yeavering Burus. In Humbleton 
Burn they consist of red, with some grey, sandstones. Close to 
the porphyrite they dip N.E. at about 45°. The porphyrite is 
crushed and veined for a breadth of 50 yards, and contains 
cubical crystals of iron pyrites ; the crushed rock seems to run 
at right angles to the dip of the Carboniferous beds. Some 
45 yards further up , the burn, and apparently parallel to tlie 
directiqn of the crushed rock, are ruttles and strings of calcite, 
with a hade to the N.E. Still further within the porphyrite, and 
just under the Green Castle Camp, is a strong vein-breccia running 
in the same direction. 

. In Akeld Burn they consist of black micaceous shales, thin 
yellow limestone bands, hard nodular brown and green calcareous 
sandstone, and yellow and red shaly sandstone. Close to the 
porphyrite they dip 70° to the N.E. , The porphyrite contains 
a few 1-inch strings of calcite, and it has rather a brecciated aspect, 
prqba]3lyi,due to decomposition along strings, but there is no true 
vein^fbrepcja,, About 116, yards further up the stream there is a 
breccia with c^loite strings and small cubes of pyrites, running 

W.N.W. parallel to the boundary. 

In Old Yeavering Burn there are green and brown nodular 
sandstone, red and green ahale, hard grey grit, and slightly 


calcareous yellow sandstone. On the N. side there seems a dip 
of 70° to the north, and on the S. a dip of the same amount to 
the. south. The porphyrite is not seen within 30 yards or so of 
the Carboniferous rocks. Putting these facts together, it seems 
probable that the boundary between Wooler and Kirknewton is 
either a fault with a downthrow to the N. and N.E., or else a 
line of disturbance of much the same effect. Besides these burn 
sections the beds are also seen nearly in place in three or four 
localities where the drift is not so thick as usual, on the hill slopes 
between Akeld ard Humbleton Bums, and in the bank of 
alluvium, north of Glenlee Tord. There was an old freestone 
quarry in this latter exposure 30 years or more ago. 

On the E. side of the hills near Earle, Carboniferous sandstones 
evidently in place, are occasionally ploughed up in the low ground 
at the base of the steeper porphyriie bank. The boundary here 
is not very straight, and is probably an unconformable one. 

In the shale of Akeld Burn are remains of fishes, including 
scales of Rhizodus Hibberti ; also reed-like stems with Spirorbis 
carbonarius attached, Stigmaria Jicoides, and a species' of 
Sphenopteris* C. T. C. 

Carboniferous Rocks of the Howtel Valley. — So far as is known 
no Carboniferous rocks have previously been noted in tliis valley, 
vfhich lies in the midst of the porphyritic district between Kilham 
and Flodden. Several small sections and outcrops, however, 
exist in various places, so that there is no doubt the bottom of 
the valley is Carboniferous. Asbout 250 yards N.E. of the village 
and fai-m, where stands the old peel tower, sandstone is seen in 
the burn. It is whitish and rather hard, and seems to dip W. 
For 200 or 300 yards further up the stream, sandstone is seen at 
intervals in its bed. It appears, generally, to dip down stream or 
S.W. ; is in some places rubbly, and contains flakes of decom- 
posed porphyrite. Nothing more is seen of the rock on this side 
of the valley. We know that the higher slopes bounding the 
valley are composed of porphyrite, but there is nothing to show 
whether the boundary on this N.W. side is a faulted or a natural 
one. On the map it has been assumed to be a natural junction ; 
but there is some evidence to show that the boundary on the S.E. 
side is a fault. South of Tuperee 150 yards, greyish sandstone 
and grey and cjiocolate shale were seen in a ditch dipping nearly 
E. at 45°, and this , probably, only about 50 yards from the 
porphyrite boundary. In the fields S.W. of this, and only about 
200 yards from the Eeedsford road, .angular fragments of sand- 
stone and shale are ploughed up in the field. There is a place 
S.E. of Tuperee, where red and white sandstone was found neair 
the surface. 

On the N.E. side of Tuperee, in a small stream which runs 
into the main burn opposite the villq,ge, dark sandy shale is seen, 
apparently dipping S.E., and traces of Carboniferous rocks are 

* G. Tate, On the Age of the Cheviots. Proceedings Berwickshire Nat. Club, 
vol. V. p. 365, 1867. 


seen up the burn nearly to where the porphyrite comes on, but 
the section is obscure. Again, in the fields between this and 
Kippie, there are small outcrops of shale and sandstone, but none 
which show a dip ; and E. of Kippie the boundary is obscured by 
drift. From the fact that all the dips seen are towards the 
boundary, it seems most likely to be a faulted one. 

The northern boundary of the porphyrite from Presson Hill 
to Branxton is probably a fault or series of faults — so that' it is 
not likely we shall find the lowest beds of the Oarboiiferous near 
the porphyrite. Near Presson Hill there is no Carboniferous to 
be seen, but the boundary on the Scottish side is thought to be a 
fault, and the comparative straightness of the line along which 
the porphyrite is seen on the English side helps to support this 
view. There is, however, little evidense for the N.N.W. fault, 
or bend, west of the Hagg, and it is quite possible there is a 
natural boundary here, and that the fault running by Moneylaws 
to Branxton is not connected with the one at Presson Hill. There 
is strong evidence for the fault going by Moneylaws, as, wherever 
the Carboniferous rocks are seen, they are nearly always found to 
be dipping towards the porphyrite instead of away from it. South 
of West Moneylaws sandstone crops out in a large field near the 
boundary, but no dip could be ascertained. Sandstone was also 
found S.W. of East, Moneylaws, and here it was dipping towards 
the porphyrite. E istward from this, between East Moneylaws 
and Branxton Hill there is a stream in Branxton Plantation 
which shows the beds. In one place some 20 to 30 feet of grey 
shale and thin sandstone are seen, with some decomposed cement 
stones, and with chocolate shales below. The dip is 30° to 40° 
to S.S.W. Some distance further up the stream the beds show 
flexures ; thin reddish sandstone and grey and sandy shale dip 
W. 35°, and then they dip up stream towards the porphyrite or 
S.S.E. at 25°, and soon we cross tlie junction, not, however, seen, 
and get on to the porphyrite in a few yards. Thus, the evidence 
here is decidedly in favour of a fault. Further eastward, no more 
Carboniferous is seen near the junction, and the porphyrite, too, 
is covered with drift, so that the line is not certain. 

The Carliam Limestone and Associated Beds. 

The beds which immediately overlie the Kelso traps are only 
seen in the neighbourhood of Carham. They consist of shales 
and thin, impure, limestones graduating ujj into thicker limestone 
beds which have been quarried. 

In Carham Burn from 150 to 200 yards north of the railway, 
we find a little ■ trough of these beds showing small sections in 
red shale, ashy shale, red and white clayey and ashy shale, and 
red ferruginous shale over limestone. The dip is N. 10° at the 
south end of the trough, and toward the N. end it dips E.N.E. 
• at 20°, and we pass on to the traps. Going down the burn to the 
northward, red shale and cement-stones are seen again, befoi'e 
reaching the road, and north of the road we find,' overlying the trap. 


purplish red shale with thin limestone and cement-stones, and with 
'■ thin green ashy bands. Lower cown the burn, shale, with irregular 
limestone, and chert bands undulate in the banks, and a little east 
of the foot of the burn greenish and chocolate-coloured shales occur 
in and below beds of limestone. In the bank south of the road 
and west of the village, red greenish and chocolate shales with 
thin limestone bands are seen. These beds are nearly flat, and it 
is probable they are above the horizon of the thickest beds of 
limestone, as are also beds seen in the steep part of the road 
between Garham and Shidlaw ; these consist of thin greenish 
sandstone, ferruginous mudstone, and red greenish shale, dipping 
west. The limestone seems to have been quarried below, in the 

Where well developed, the Carham Limestone is a thick - 
bedded or massive magnesian limestone, whitish or light-coloured, 
siliceous, and containing many lumps of pink and grey chert 
which, in places, make up a large part of the limestone. According 
to an analysis of the limestone by Dr. R. D. Thomson, it 
contains : — * 

Carbonate of lime - - - * - 49 ' 6 

Carbonate of magnesia - - 44" 

Silica - - - - - - - - 4" 

Protoxide of iron - - - - - 1 ' 2 

Alumina - - - - - - 1' 


As will be seen from the above analysis, the limestone is almost 
a dolomite. It was formerly a good deal (juarried in the wood 
S.W. of the Shidlaw Tile Works where it dips about E.S.E. 25°- 
80°, and 2 to 3 feet of it may be seen in the railway cutting W. of 
the Tile Works, where the dip is E.S.E. about 20°. It is vej;^ 
cherty, and associated with chocolate and grey shales, and ceme.=nt- 
stones. I believe it is still being burnt for lime on the Scofiiish 
side of the border near the Carham Railvtray Station. The Viime- 
stone may also be seen in the River Tweed, west of Carham CJlmrch, 
close to which it was formerly quariied. Here it dips S.""^- about 
10°, is dolomitic and cherty as usual, ami it rests on rgrey and 
variegated sandstone and sandy shale, of whicli 6 or f feet are 
seen. Many large blocks of this peculiar limestone have been 
carried eastwards in tiie drift, and now, in some places, there are 
so many of these lying about as at first sight to lead one to suppose 
there may be. outcrops of the limestone near. One of the most 
puzzling of these is at Shidlaw Farm, on the N. side of which in a 
small plantation is a rocky knoll called the Law (which means 
bill), composed of large angular limestone-blocks. ; Tlie following 
reference to this may be qiioted. "On the top of the wooded 
rocky knoll behind the farmhouse is a tumulus, which h^d 
evidently been explored, at no distant date, by being cut into from 
one side, but no information could be got as to the result 
. . s. Limestone was worked, experimentally near this spot, but 

* Mag. ifat. Hist., vol. v , 1831, p. 637~, 


it is believed not to have been of such a quality as to render the 
quarry successful."* It looks to me like an artificial mound. 
Again, there is a large number of limestone blocks of this kind 
near the south bank of the river to the west of Wark, and nearly 
due north of Gilly's Nick : and here they would certainly seem 
to have come out of the bank of drift in which they were probably 
imbedded. The well-known monolith, called the King's Stone, 
standing near Crookham West Field, is a block of this siliceous 
limestone, and was probably found, not far off, as a boidder. Even 
as far away as Moneylaws, blocks of chert and limestone are 
numerous, so that at one time I was in doubt, from the blocks seen 
in the road near W. Moneylaws and from the number about in 
the fields, whether there might not be an outcrop of the limestone 
near. Indeed, when we consider that these rooks have been 
thrown into somewhat sharp folds, as shown by the occurrence of 
inliers of the underlying trap, and also by the high dips seen in 
places, it is not unlikely there may be other outcrops of the limestone 
concealed hy the drift. 

The thickness of the Carham Limestone is very variable ; in 
places there would seem to be at least 20 to 25 feet of it. 

It should be mentioned that in one place there appear to be 
sedimentary beds below the trap. This is in Oarham Burn 
between 70 and 100 yards south of the railway, where thin sand- 
stone is seen dipping N.N.E. about 15°, and apparently under- 
lying the trap in the bank to the eastward. It is, however, 
uncertain whether this may not be a bed intercalated with the 
trap rocks. 

For several hundred feet above the Oarham Limestone, shale 
seems to be the predominating rock, and sandstone quite 
subordinate. Masses of shale, ^vith cement-stones, are seen at the 
Shidlaw Tile Works, where the ground-up shale was formerly 
used for tile-making. The shale is grey or dark, and in one place 
dips as high as 25° to E.S.E., but in the bank E. of the works, 
which skirts theN. side of the railway, the dij) is as low as 5° and, 
there, sandstone bands occur in the shale. A little east of the 
shed, where the grey shale and cement-stones dip E.N.E. 15°, two 
small faults were seen running E. 25° N., and throwing down to 
the north respectively 3 feet and 15 inches. In the steep bank 
bounding the old alluvium of Oarham Hall, and in a line between 
the Hall and Shidlaw, a small stream exposes from 75 to 100 feet 
of grey shale, with cement-stones, thin sandstone, and mudstone, 
dipping E.S.E. about 30°. There is some sandstone in these beds, 
and there is one quarry west of Shidlaw where yellowish and yellow 
green sandstone, with blue and grey shale, dip as high as 40° a 
little to the S. of E. Also, about half a mile east of Sunnylaws, 
on the S. side of the railway, occur old quarries (marked as Marl 
Pit on the 6" map) which were probably in sandstone. A good 
deal of blue and grey shale, with cement- stones, is seen in the burn 
W. of Wark East Common, generally dipping N., in several places 

* Transactions Berwickshire Nat. Club, vol. v., 1863, p. 16. 


at very high angles, and nearly vertical. Again, jn the lower part 
of the same burn to the S. of Wark, the beds exposed are of grey 
sandy shale, with thin sandstone in place?, the dip being N.E. 
7°-10°. Beds of much the same character occupy the English 
bank of the Tweed for about half a mile or so opposite Wark. 
The shales and cement-stones are a good deal disturbed in places 
W. of the village, and dip steeply to the N., but just opposite the 
village they are nearly flat, as seen in a cliff by the river side, 40 to 
50 feet high. There are thin sandstone-bands in the shale, and 
near the base of the cliff occur two cement-stone beds each about 
1 foot thick. If we follow the river to beyond the village we find 
the rocks dipping eastward 12°-18°. Lists of fossils collected 
near Wark will be found in the appendix. 

There are good fieciions of these shale beds in the Willow 
Burn S. of West Learmouth. The dip is variable, but in the 
main N.E. dips prevail at angles from 5°-15°. The banks of the 
stream show as much as 25 to .30 feet of rock at once, in places, 
and in the sharp bend of the stream, S.W. of West Learmouth, a 
fault may be seen ranging W.N. W. Thin sandstone bands are 
common in the shale, as are also cement-stones, with occasional 
ironstone. Higher uj) the stream, a little S. of where the road 
crosses the burn, the beds dip between E.N.E. and N.E. 10°-15°, 
and consist of: — 

Grey shale, with cement-stones. 

Red shale, a few feet. 

Grey and dark shale, with wedge-bedded sandstone below. 

It is probable that the beds exposed by the Tweed side, about 
Coldstream Bridge are higher in the series than any of these, and 
we get, apparently, a continuous abcendiug section from the bend 
of the river above the bridge, going down the stream for nearly 
a mile, the beds dipping pretty steadily between E.N.E. and 
N.E. from 5° to 7°. They consist of grey and dark shales, with 
ihiu-bedded greyish and yellowish sandstones, some mudstones, 
clays, cement and lime stone hands. These beds are very 
interesting, as they have yielded to the search of the fossil-collec- 
tors a number of new and undescribed organisms.' About 250 
yards below the bridge two small faults may be seen in the bank, 
ranging about N.W., one of these throws down 2 ft. 6 in. to the 
eastward. A little more than J mile below the bridge we find in 
the bank two or three beds of thin blue shelly limestone, each .3 or 
4 inches thick. The dip increases as we go on, so that where the 
whin dyke is seen it is as high as from. 15° to 20°, and several 
faults come in, the most important running N.W. Here we see 
the following beds : — 

Shales (several feet). 

Thin shale, with traces of coal, 3 to 4 inches. 

Shale, part bituminous above, 5 to 6 feet. 

Impure, dark, and light-coloured limestone with some shale, 2 feet. 

Eossils have been collected from several places along this part 
of the Tweed, for lists of which see Appendix. Spirorbis helieteres 
and Modiola sp. are pretty common, together with Ostracoda. 


As we get further east, and ascend in the series to where sand- 
stones abound, we find numerous plants. Lennel Braes, where 
Witham obtained many of the species described in "Fossil 
Vegetables," is 2 miles from Ooldatream Bridge, but oq the Scottish 
side of the river, and according to Witham, the N.E. dip prevails 
all this distance. At all events the N.E. dip continues pretty 
constant on the English side as far as Caller Heugh Bank about 
a mile from the mouth of the River Till. There seems, however, 
disturbance in the bank opposite- Brownridge, there being slickened 
sandstone with a sharp northerly dip. This bed contains coal- 
plants. On either side of the foot of Oxendean Burn the dip is 
between N.N.E. and 40° N. of E.. varying in amount from 10° to 
15°. Alternations of shales and sandstones, grey, green, and red 
shale overlying thin bedded grey sandstone, occur ; .nnd just 
north of the foot of the burn, dark and grey sandy micaceous 
shale with some sandstone and clay bands, contains a sandy 
calcareous mudstone, or impure limestone, with shells. (See List 
of Fossils, p. 86.) 

Thick grey and white micaceous sandstone has been largely 
quarried in the wood on the S. side of the burn; and higher up 
the burn, near the railway, is a sandstone quarry, on the other side, 
where the beds seem nearly flat. Continuing up the burn and 
crossing the railway the beds, mostly of whitish and grey sana- 
stone, dip N., and in places N.N.W., at angles of 8° to 15°. 
After crossing the line of the whin dyke, the dip again points 
E. of N., as it does in Cornhill quarry by the side of the railway, 
somewhat S. of the whin dyke, where, however, the bedding 
seems somewhat obscure, or irregular. The dip at the north end 
in thin laminated sandstone, with rather irregular base, is as high 
as 10°— 20°. Below this comes 8 or 10 feet of grey shale, and these 
beds seem to flatten out southwards, and rest on thick massive 
white sandstone which seems nearly flat. 

About the mouth of the Till and onwards to the N. edge of the 
area, sandstone is the predominant rock. There are fine river-cliff 
sections, and a large quarry in reddish sandstone near Twizell 
Station. The beds strike in this part nearly along the river, the 
dip being between S.S.E. and E.S.E. at angle* from 10°-15'' 
Occasionally there is great irregularity in the bedding, e.^, justN. 
of the foot of the Till, where shale and cement-stones, with masses 
of sandstone, dip N.E. This is noticed and flgured in Milne's 
Geological Survey of Berwickshire, p. 195, and he mentions several 
fossils found here. (See Appendix, for Fossils collected by the 
Survey, near the mouth of the Till, in several places.) 

The banks of the River Till, between its junction with the 
Tweed and Etal, afford good sections of the alternating sandstones 
and shales, with cement-stones, which form the upper part of the 
Tuedian Series, but the dip is too irregular for any safe estimate 
to be given of the thickness of these beds. Some of the sandstone, 
beds are very thick, and have been largely quarried on the E. 
side of the river, e.g., opposite Tiilmouth Park, and near each of 


the two easterly bends oi the Till, between Twizell Mill and Old 
Heaton Mill. 

Along the lowest reach of the Till, the beds of sandstone and 
shale are nearly flat ; the river here seems on the line of a gentle 
anticline, so that the dip is away from the river at low angles, 
and the same beds appenr in both banks. The sandstone is white or 
pink in places, speckled, and massive or thick-bedded, as below the 
site uf Twizell Castle where it is capped by 15 feet of shale, and 
lias thin-bedded sandstone below. Up Smithy Dean Burn there 
fire a good many rather sharp undnlations, but continuing up the 
Till beyond the fine old bridge the beds keep nearly flat, as seen 
in the stream and in the quarry opposite Tillmouth Park. In the 
quarry the stone is white and irregular, there being a good deal 
of wedge-bedding and some grey, sandy shnle. The reddish 
massive sandstone in the quarry at the bend E. of Twizell Mill 
probably dips E., like the beds adjoining, but the most prominent 
lines in it are joints running W.S.W> and. E.N.E. It may be 
mentioned that there is a pretty good continuous section in the 
dean in Tillmouth Park which shows a good thickness of beds, 
mostly shale, dipping N. and N.N.E. at low angles. 

Between the last-mentioned quarry and the one atDuncanheugh, 
near Old Heaton Mill, which is probably on a higher horizon, a 
considerable thickness of shales, cement-stones, and thin sandstone, 
would seem to come in. These are better seen up the lower part 
of Finger Burn than in the Till. A good thickness of shales and 
thin- sandstone must be exposed here, as though the beds are 
rolling somewhat, in places the dip is pretty constant towards 
E.N.E. and N.E., at angles of 8''-10°. The shales are mostly grey, 
but sometimes chocolate-coloured, some of the thin sandstone 
beds are fine, hard, and grey, and some of the impure limestone, 
or cement-stones, which weather yellow, as much as 1 ft. thick. 
These beds probably curve round to the Till west of Duncanheugh, 
where the dip is E.S.E. The sandstone at Duncanheugh quarry 
is massive and whitish or light coloured, with large flattened 
concretions and casts of trees and plants. The rock, of which 
about 40' is seen, is cut off by a fault at the E. end ranging nearly 
N.W., as sandstone resting on shale is seen abutting against the 
sandstone of the quarry ; but the throw is not known. The 
shales above Old Heaton Mill have yielded Ostracoda and the 
usual Spirorbis helicteres. Here the beds dip S., but E. and N.E 
dips generally prevail, as at Old Heaton, where there is a good 
thickness of shale, bending round to E.S.E., near Tiptoe, and 
dipping as much as 20° to 25°, and the sandstones are thicker. 
It is possible that the Duddo fault may cross the river about here 
but nothing is known as to what westward course any of the 
faults take which . cross the coal out-crops between Duddo and 
Felkington. One may cross at Old Heaton Mill. Juilging from 
the few exposures seen on the E. side, the reach of the river from 
Tiptoe southwards runs nearly along the line of strike, the dips 
being all 15° 20° to the E.N.E. On the W. side near the next 
bend^ we get the characteristic parti-colotu'ed grey, greenish, and 


chocolate shales with cement-stones. The dip is almost due E., 
along the next reach, and after that, with tlie exception of one 
or two southerly dips at the bend N.W. of New Etal, they are all 
directed between N. and E. 

The S.E. bend of the river at Tindle House is along the strike 
so that each S.W. reach of the river, above and below, cuts straight 
across the beds and gives us muib the same succession, though 
the one nearest to Tindle House is the best section. These are 
the uppermost beds of the Tuedian. There are several alternations 
of sandstones and shales with cement-stones of the usual character, 
■dipping N.E. 12°-15°, and probably altogether as much as 500 
feet of beds is exposed along this reach. Near the middle of the 
sectioa is a bed of dark grey limestone 8 ins. thick. On the west 
side of the river, at the Barley Mill, may be seen .a good example 
of irregularities of bedding, which are not uncommon, sandstone 
being locally unconformable ti dark grey shale with thin sand- 
stone bands. Another example of this kind is seen higher up the 
river opposite Etal Mill, where yellow thin-bedded sandstone rests 
unconformably on massive sandstone. Near this therock is much 
crushed, and small smuts of coal appear in the sandstone. There 
no rock in the bend of tlie river about Crookham. While thin- 
bedded sandstone appears in the river at Ford Forge dipping 
N.N.E. nearly 20° and traces of rock are seen in the W. bank as 
far up as Heatherslaw, beyond which the river affords no further 
rock section. 

Away from the Till and Tweed and the lower part of the 
streams which enter them, little is seen of' these beds over the 
low ilrifty ground. There are one or two small sections near 
Melkington as shown by dips on the map. 

There was an old quarry 400 yards S. of New Hcaton, and 
another between New Heaton and Marldown, where sandstone 
was got, and there is a good sized quarry still open 600 yards 
W.N.W. of Pallinsburn House, where the sandstone is false- 
bedded; grey and while, with some shaly partings. The dip is 
E.S.E. at a low angle. There are also some small sections in 
the burn a few hundred yards W. of Branxton Church, near to 
the place ^vhere the road crosses the stream, and on the S. side 
thin sandstone and grey shale appear, and a bed of blue limestone 
1 to 2 ft. thick, dipping S.S.W. at 30°. On the east side of the Till 
there is a fairly good section of some of these beds in Broomridge 
Dean N.E. of Kimmerston, and from their position they should 
represent the beds in the Till near Tindle House already 
mentioned. Going up the Burn from the road near Kimmerston 
we come upon beds of soft sandstone, shale and cement-stones with 
fine hard grey sandstone, dipping E. and E.S.E. 15°. Higher up 
the dip is nearly along stream N.E. from 8° to 25° to a little beyond 
where the stream turns eastward, and then the dip changes to 
N.N.W. and N.W. at angles of 10°-2.0°. Very near the bend 
where the dip is E.N.E. 25°, the shale cimtains large flattened 
concretions 1 foot or so in diameter. Opposite Ford Wood the dip 
is N., and then it turns again to N.E. 20°-25°. Alternations of 
e 88198. n 


grey shale (sometimes red) and cement-stones, witli grey and 
white sandstone are numerous. Therti is an old quarry to the S. 
of Kimmerston where the dip is E N.E., about 10° which has, at 
the top, chocolate and grey shales with cements overlying 15'-20' 
of sandstone, whitish, red, and yellow, rather irregularly bedded, 
mostly thick. Between this and Fenton Hill a great deal of 
sandstone crops out in the fields, and in Whitehill Plantation, 
where it is coarse, soft, and reddish. There is a large sandstone 
quarry on the E. side of the road from Kimmerston to Fenton 
Mill, where the dip is apparently E. or N.E., but the ^tone is 
massive, and there are signs of rolling. There are some irregular 
beds of purplish sandy shale enclosing lumps of sandstone in 
the upper pa.rt of tiie' quarry. The rock is whitish and soft, 
v/eathering red. Many plants occur in the stone. Thei-e seems 
such a mass of sandstone about here, that it may be doubted if 
this does not belong to the Fell Sandstones faulted down. 

W. G. 


Carboniferous — continued. 

The Fell Sandstones Group. 

The upper part of the Tuedian group of Tate iias received 
this name further south. It consists, mainly, of sandstones, with 
but little shale, and some few thin coal-seams near the top. ITie 
sandstones are often massive and occasionally coarse, grey, white, 
or yellowish ■ brown in colour, but sometimes red. They cannot 
everywhere be clearly marked oft' from the beds which come below 
and ahoie, but as most of the lower coals which lie above have 
usually been worked, and their crops marked on the map, it may 
be taken for granted that the area immediately to tiie west of 
these is occupied by the Fell Sandstones. Their thickness can 
nowhere be determined exactly, and the 500 feet mentioned in 
the section is probably an under estimate. 

One of the best sections is that given by the lower part of 
Diiddo Mill Burn where it enters the Kiver Till near Tindle House. 
Starting from the bed of red and chocolate clayey shale which 
Overlies the sandstone on which the house stands, we find for 
400 yards up the burn continuous N.E. and N.N.E. dips, ranging 
from 15° to 25°, and this alone would give a thickness of 400 feet. 
But the sandstone is seen with some intervals as far up as the road, 
or altogether for nearly half a mile, and it probably continues 
further to the E., being hidden hy drift ,• and though there is no 
doubt the dip lessens very much toward the coal outcrop? at 
Greenlawalls there is probably as much as 800 ft. of sandstone here 
below the coals. Some of the sandsiones seen in the burn fornn' 
marked features in the banks, and it is possible there are thin 
partings of clay or shale in places, but none were seen. Some of 
the beds are reddish, others decidedly r>.'d ; and they vary in 
grain from fine to very coarse, while some are soft and crumbly. 
These beds crop out in many places in the fields W. of the road 
leading northwards towartis Griifdon Ridge — as far as where the 
whin dyke occurs — and for some distance S. of the latter the 
soft decomposing rock, in places coarse and red, is seen by the 
roadside, occasionally quite like sand. To the southward of 
Duddo Mill Burn part of the rock stands out as a fine scar of 
massive sandstone at Berryhill Crag, which is cut off by a fault 
at the E. end, 

We see the red and yellowisii massive sandstone again at 
Rhodes, dipping E. 15°-30°, and it crops up in many places 
in fields to the S. as far as Ford, especially in and near 
Shi^tbn Dean, E. of Ford' Forge, where a pretty continuous 
section is seen. The beds dip about E.N.E. 15°-30°, making 
several distinct features, and in the lower part there are some 
beds of grey and purple shale seen between the beds of white 



and reddish sandstone. Perhaps these lowest beds, however, are 
below the Fell Sandstones proper, and the equivalent of those in 
the Till near Tindle House. At Ford there is so much dis- 
turbance and faulting that it is not easy to say where_ these beds 
occur, but the sandstones which come up in an anticlinal 1o the 
E. of the village are probably a i)art of this series. They are 
seen dipping to the westward 25°-35° by the side of the road, 
running E. of the village, and in the main road, S. of the village, 
while the quarry In the wood to the eastward shows the other 
limb of the arch dipping E.S.E. and S.E., 30°-35°. Here the 
sandstone is massive white and mucli slickened along lines of 
joints. There is a quarry still fui'ther to the east in a new 
plantation, and this is probably in higher beds. The strike is 
the same, but the beds dip both to the S. E. and N.W., and in 
one place they are vertical. Here again are numerous slickened 
surfaces along joints running S.E. and N.W., but the lines of 
slickens are horizontal, while at the other quarry they are inclined 
25° to the S.E. The sandstone here is massive, and whitish 
below — thinner with lenticular shale-bands above. The following 
is a more particular account of this quarry (see Fig. 4): — 

Sandstone bedded. Some rubbly, with a band of shale a few inches 

thick, which dies out to westward, 15 to 20 feet. 
.Sandstone, massive, 15 to 25 feet seen. The lower part in bottom of 

quarry irregular and containing a lenticular seam of poor coal and 

shale nearly 1 foot thick. 

Fig. 4. — Lenticular mass of Coal in Sandstone, Ford Quarry, in 
New Plantation, south of the Common. 

Length of Coal about 2 yards. 

On the north side of the qjuairy the beds are nearly vertical, 
and shale and thin coal are seen in rubbly sandstone, probably on 
the same horizon as the bed of shale on the south side. 

In the burn near Ford Hill, beds appear which may belong to 
those under description, but there is a good deal of disturbance 
and faulting in places. The finest exposures of the Fell Sand- 
stones in this area are in the crags south of Ford Moss and in 
those east of Fenton Hill. 

The sandstones of Broomridge and Dovehole Crags S. of 
Ford Moss are brought up against tlie Scremerston Coal Group 
by a large fault which skirts the S. side of the Moss. Near the 
fault the sandstone has a steep northerly dip, but to the south- 
ward the beds seem to have a more gentle dip. In many places 
the sandstone is decidedly coarse, and in a few quite pebbly, but 


it is nearly everywhere massive, so that the dip is not easily deter- 
mined. To the east of Fenton Hill these sandstones — massive 
and often coarse, white, brown, or pinkish in colour — dip to the 
N. or N.N.E., making several distinct crags or features, which are 
probably cut off on the west by a fault running nearly along the 
road bounding the higher ground. 

W. G. 



Caebonifeeous — continued. 

The Sckemeeston Coal Group oe Carbonaceous 

This, which is a fairly definable series, embraces all the beds 
from the base of the Dun Limestone down to the lowest workable 
bed of coal, known as the Wester Coal, which is virtually the 
same as the top of the Fell Sandstone Group. It includes a thick- 
ness of about 500 to 600 feet of sandstones and shales with several 
workable coals, and a few thin limestones, none of which have been 
worked. The following is a general section of ihe beds near Ford 
Moss Colliery : — 

Dun Limestone ... 

■Coal (Dun seam) .... 

•Sandsfone and Shale ... . - 

.Fawcet Coal ...._■. 

Sandstone and shale with thin coals and at least 

one thin limestone ... 
JBlaclcMll Seam ...... 

Measures . . - - 

Kiln Goal . . - . - 

Measures ... 

.Main Coal - ... 

Measures ...... 

■Three-Quarter Coal .... 

Measures . . - - . 

.Jjady Coal on Cooper Eye Coal - - 

Measures . ... 

Westeran Coal - - 

There are a good many local variations in thickness in the strata, 
principally owing to the irregularity of many of the bends of sand- 
stone, and the total thickness of the series is not so great as it is at 
Scremerston, near Berwick, where the beds between the Dun 
Limestone and the Blackhill Seam, there called the Scremerston 
Main Coal, are as much as 500 feet thick, while near Ford Moss 
they cannot be much more than 300 ft,, though it is probable they 
are thicker than this near Felkington at the JSf. margin of the 

Ford Moss Colliery. 

The following is a detailed account of the beds at Ford Moss 
Colliery. The section is probably made up from more than one 
pit, as there is no shaft known to have been sunk tlirough all the 
seams : — 

Surface (perhaps peat) .... 
Freestone .... 

Blue metal - . . . ^ 



6 to 7 




2 to 2 























Grey shale imd freestone 




Blue metal - - 




Freestone bands - - . . 





Bine metal - . . - 




CoiL - . - „ . 



Blue metal . . - - . 




Limestone .... 




Black metal. . . . - . 




r Top Coal 



BlacTchillCoA-Li Middle atone - 


. Ground Coal 




■White metal .... 


Grey freestone . . . - 



Blue metal - . . . 


Limestone ..... 



Black metal .... 



White freestone ... 



Blue metal . - . . - 




Grey freestone ... 



Coal . - . - . 


Blue metal - - . . . 




While freestone .... 



Coal ..... 


Blue metal (at the Moss this becomes a 15 ft. 






r Top Coal 


Kiln Coal - ■ Middle stone 



. Ground Coal 




Tills and freestone "- . . . 


Coal - - . - 




Black metal .... 




Limestone - - - . 




Blue metal .... 





Grey freestone 




Blue metal - - . . . 




Limestone - . . . 




Black metal .... 





Coal - - ... 



White nietal .... 





Blue metal 




Coal - - . . 




Blue metal - - . 




Grey freestone 


Tn. " 


'Top Coal 

. 1 

Chalk stone - 


Splint Coal 

. 1 


Main Coal - < 

Black stone 


Splint Coal - 


Chalk stone 



, Smithy Coal 



White metal ..... 

Limestone ... 




Black metal - . 




Coal - ..... 



Blue metal 




COA^ - . - 



Shale ..... 






- . . - 







Limestone - ^ 

Black metal - 

Grey freestona • 

White freestone • - 

Limestone - . - - 

Coal > - - - 

Blue metal - « - - - 

Grey freestone . -> -- 

Bine metal . . - 

Grey freestone . ^ - > - 

OoiL . . » - 

Blue metal - - 

Limestone - . . . 

White metal ,-.--- 

White freeslone 

Grey freestoco 

Blue metal . » . 

White freestone ~ - 

Blue metal 

Coal - » . -i . 

White freestone i- (Probably Three- Quarter 

Coal -J • 

Blue metal - o . 

White freestone - 

Coal - - - - r . 

Black metal - . . 

White freestone .... 

Blue metal - . - . 

Limestone - - . ^ 

Black metal 

White freestone 

Lady Coal or 
Cooper Eye. 

TTop Coal - 
I Limestone 
■{ Splint Coal ■ 
I Black slate 
[ Ground Coal 

Blue metal .... 

Grey freestone - . . 



Blue metal ... 

Limestone - ■- - 

Grey freestone bands 

Coal .... 

Limestone ... 

Coal - - - . . 

Freestone bands - . . 

Blue metal 

G-rey freestone 

White metal 

White freestone 

Blue metal - . - . 

Coal and chalk stone (several bands) 

fCoal Tops - 
I Limestone 
Western Goal -^ Coal - 
LCoAi, - 

















































Ft. In. 



1 2 










































Ft. In. 

I 6 




























Black metal 

White shale 
Blue shale 
"White shale 
Coal ^ 

Blue shale 

Of this total of. 332 feet the beds between the Blackhill and 
Wester Coal-seams comprise rather more than 200 feet. Counting 
each of the seams of coal worked as ojie, the number of coals 
given in the section is 24 with a total thickness of 24 feet 4 inches 
of coal, but as each of the coals worked is in reality either two, 
three, or four seams the actual number of beds of coal is 34. The 
number of limesttoe-heds mentioned in ihe section is 16 with a 
total of 25 ft. 2 ins. of limestone. Many of these are very 
thin; the thickest and most frequent beds come a little way 
below the Wester and Cooper Eye Coals. Tiie Blackhill and 
Cooper Eye Seams are generally characterised by having lime- 
stones immediately above them, thus, forming the roofs of those 
coals ; but the Cooper Eye in the section has the limestone in 
the seam just as the Westejr Coal has. 

For the section above gilen I am indebted to Mr. Herrington, 
who was manager of the Colliery in 1879 at the time of my visit. 
It agrees pretty well with one given in Part III. of Sinkings and 
Borings, measured by J. Patrick in 1817. The latter, however, 
contains some manifest mistakes, as, for instance, one coal-seam, 
given as 7 ft. thick (only a portion of the Main Coal) is only 1ft., 
'and it does not give the beds below the Cooper Eye Seam. 

It will be noticed that the upper part of the Ford Moss section 
is incomplete, and I regret I am unable to give details of the 
whole of the beds between the Dun Limestone and the Blackhill 

We will now give for comparison sections of pit-shafts at 
Gatherick, Old Gfreenlawalls, Greenlawalls, and Felkington, being 
all the pit-sections obtainable. Many of the workings are very 
old, and account was kept of most of them. 

The Black Hill Coal is the same as the Scremerston Main Coal, 
It takes its name from Black Hill, Ford Moss. 

The Kiln Coal of Ford Moss is probably that called the Hardy 
or Stony Coal further north. 

The Main Coal of Ford Moss and Slainsfield, &c. is known 
further north as the Bulman or Cancer\Coal. 

The name of Lady Cqal for the Cooper Eye seems confined to 
Ford. In an accoutit of these pits written in 1760 the Three- 
Quarter Coal is called the Stone Coal and the TVester Coal is 
called the Little Coal. 



Of the terms met witli in these sections — Metal* tills, and dent 
are used for various kinds of shale. The black slate in the Oooper 
Eye Coal is sometimes called macker. It will burn, being a 
coaly shale, but retains its shape. 

Chalkstone is always the term used for peculiar thin bands of 
stone parting the Maia Coal. 

Gatherick Colliery. 

Section of Strata sunk through to the Hardy Coal, Main Coal, 
Three Quarter Coal, ami Oooper Eye Coal Seams, 1819 : — 



1. Soil and clay - - - 



2. Freestone bands 



3. White freestone 



4. Grey freestone - - - 



5. OoAL (rough) - 1 




6. Bastard Limestone > Hardy or Stomy Goal - -\ 


7. Coal (good) - J 



8. Blue tills 



9. OoAi (splintyj - 1 
10. Freestone band \- Diamond Seam 

- 1 





11. Coal (coarse) - J 

. 1 


12. Freestone band 



13. CoAi (slaty) - 



14. Black tills 




15. Limestone ... 



16. Blue tills 

- . 


17. Hard freestone - 




18. Tills (very strong) 




19. Freestone 

. . 


20. Tills .... 



21. Metal (soft and white like marl) 

- . - 



22. Tills mixed with tender freestone bands . 



23. Top Coal (generally left on for roof) 


24. Chalkstone - 


26. Splint Coal (strong) 


Main or Bul- 



26. Blue metal band 


> man Goal < 


27. Splint Coal 



28. Chalk stone 



29. Smithy Coal 



30. Soft blue metal 



31. Strong white tills 



32. Black metal 

- . 



33. Limestone 


34. Black metal - 



35. Coal 

. . 


36. Freestone band 



37. Coal 



38. Tills . . . - 

. . 



39. Freestone bands 



40. Coal . - - - 



41. Dark blue metal ... 

- . 


42. Light grey metal 




43. Dark grey meial 




44. Dark grey freestone 

» . - 



45. Black metal 




* Metal is a soft shale. Tills are harder poi'tions. 

t lioyd, Trans. North of England Inst. Min. Engineers, vol. ix. 


46. Limestone - 

47. Coal 

48. Black metal 

49. Coal -] 

50. brassy band )■ Three-Qua/rter Coal 

61. Coal J 

62. Dark grey metal ... 

63. Hard brown Limestone 

64. Dark bine metal 

65. Limestone roof . . - 
56. Cooper Eye Goal 

67. Thill- 























Total depth - - - 208 4 

Mr. Boyd gives two records of the upper part of this section, 
down to No. 30, which underlies the Bulmau Coal, in which 
Nos. 5 to 11 are differently grouped. In the first section Nos. 5 
to 9 are called the BlackhiU or Scremerston Main Coal, while in 
the other Nos. 5 to 7 are called the Hardy or Stony Coal and 
Nop. 9 to 11 are called the Diamond Seam. The latter appears to 
be the most correct view of the seams, as it assimilates the 
section of this pit to that of Old Greenlawalls, not far off, where, 
as I was informed by Mr. George Bailes, formerly Agent (or the 
Scremerston Colliery Co., no Main Coal existed. (He must have 
been referring to the Scremerston Main Coal or BlackhiU Seam 
and not to the Bulman Main Coal.) 

The pit is situated about 300 yards west-south-west of 
Gatherick Farm, but has not been worked for many years ; I 
believe not since an irruption of water caused the death of several 

{Old) Greenlawalls, Township o/Duddo. 

Section of Strata sunk through in the Lady Pit to the Bulman 
and Cooper Eye Seams : — 



Blue Clay - - - - 





White freestone 




r Coal 

- 2 

Hardy Seam ■ Limestone 



L Coal ... 





Brown metal - - 









Diamond qi,„i„ 
5Y„„™ Shale 
^«"™- ICOAL 


- 2 

- 2 




Soft bine shale 



White freestone - - 





Hard white freestone 





Soft blue metal - 




Black metal . - - 




White metal ... 











Hard •yrhite freestone 
Blue shale 
Freestone bands - 
Bine shale 
Freestone hand 
OOAL - - 

Black shale 

Bvilman Main 

Coiii, top- - 
Chalk stone 
Coal, splint 
Coal, rough 
Band stone 
Coal ground 
Chalk stone - 
CoAii, smithy 































Shale - 









Freestone band 


Freestone bands 

Freestone bands 

Limestone - 
Tills - 

^'«»M/ Goal 


Three.Quarter [grestoL 


Limestone ■ 

Cooper Eye 





■ Coal, splint 
.Goal, ground 



Ft. In. 

- 6 
. 1 

- 1 2 

Ft. In. 



Ft. In. 
1 2 


1 1 


















2 8 

0. 6 





Into Limestone 
Total - 




The. above section is taken from Part III. of Sinkings and 
Borings, published by the N. of Eng. Inst, of Mining Engineers, 
in which it seems to be taicen for granted that the place referred 
to is Greeulawalls near Mattilees. This, however, must be a 
mistake as the deepest pit there is only 188^ feet deep, and the 
authenticated section of it is very different from this one which 
resembles the Gatherick section a good deal. 

I have, therefore, no doubt that the pit is Old Greenlawalls Pit 
west of Gatherick and about 600 yards to the north-east of Old 
Greenlawalls Farm — where Colliery is marked on the one inch 
map. It has long been disused. 

Section of Greenlaw Walls Shaft, 1832. 





Said to be Hardy or Stony Coal 

(^(Probably Diamond Seam) of 
of other sections 

Red Gravelly clay 

Blue metal 




Grey tills 

Coal - 

Blue tills 

Freestone Band f 

Coal - -J 

White metal ... 

Grey freestone 

Blue metal 

Coal '. . . 

White metal 

Grey Freestone beds - 

Coal — not workable. Top Coal 

Hard brown metal, slaty 

Coal, good, rather splinty 

White metal, with limestone scalp 

Coal, mixed with black dent 

Grey freestone mixed with charcoal 

Black metal - . - 

Coal ... 

Dark brown metal 


Limestone, very dun - 

Goal good ... 

Blue metal 

Limestone, with freestone scalp 

Coal good ... 

Black dent 

Limestone mixed with metal 

Blue metal 

Coal mixed with black dent . 

Brown freestone beds - 

Grey do. do. 

Blue metal . - 

Grey freestone with very hard sand 

Black dent ... 

White metal 

Hard white freestone - 


{ Bulman 
' for Main 
' I Coal. 

-■J L 

.. grey 

„ white „ 
Grey freestone beds 

with metal partings 




































































Ft. Ik. 

47. Grey freestone . - - - - 

48. „' „ beds 

49. Coal witii blue metal - 
GO. Hard grey freestone 

51. Brown freestone beds - - - - 

52. Blue metal - - 

53. Hard white freestone - - 

54. Grey freestone bands - - - 

55. White metal . . - . . 

56. Hard white freestone - 

57. Blue metal . - 

58. Hard grey freestone 

59. Soft freestone beds . . . . 

60. Hard grey freestone ... 

61. White freestone beds - 

62. White metal - ... - 

63. Grey freestone beds ... 
'64. Hard white freestone . . : 

65. Blue metal - - - - ' - 

66. White freestone .... 

67. Blue metal .... 

68. Limestone . . - - . 

69. Coal . . - 

70. Blue metal ..... 

71. Grey freestone band .... 

72. Coal Three-Quarter Seam 
7.S. Blue metal . . - - . 

74. Grey freestone bands ... 

75. Grey tills " 

76. Limestone ..... 

77. Coal Cooper Eye Seam . . - 

The above is the section given by Dr. R. D. Thomson in a 
paper entitled " Observations on the Strata of Berwickshire and 
^orth Durham."* The one given by Mr. Boydf is substantially 
the same, but has the details somewhat differently arranged. 

Felkinyton. (Newest Pit.) 

Section of Strata passed through in Sinking Shaft to Main 
Coal Seam " Bulman," at Felkington : — 



























































Black metal 





Black Hill Goal usually called 
Scremerston Main Goal 

l' Top coal 
j Band stone 
(. Ground coal 

- 2 






Soft blue metal 





Tills - 











Band . 





* Proc. Berwickshire Nat. Club, vol. i. p. 85. 

t Trans' N. of Eng. Inst. Mining Engineers, vol. ix. 




(Probably Hardy Seam of 
other sections. 

(Probably Diamond Seam) I 
of other sections. | 




Goal - 









Coal . . . - 


Tills - 


Tills - 

Limestone - . - 

Freestone bands 

Metal ..... 

Black band ... 

Main Coal Seam : 

''Top Coal which is left on for roof 

Chalk stone 

Splint Goal ... 



§ M In ) Midstono 

a:r . 

Ground Coal ■ 
Chalk stone 
Smithy Goal 














































This pit is situated at the northern margin of the area about 
half a mile N.E. from Felkington, and has been sunk within the 
last 30 years. For the section I am indebted to Mr. R. Nesbitt, 
Manager for the Scremerston Coal Company who work the pit 
for land sale purposes. 

Most of the workings are now discontinued ; tlie only pits 
in use are at Ford Moss, Slainsfield, and Felkington. The coals 
vary in quality, but are in many cases fairly bituminous and 
moderately good, though they cannot compete with coals from 
Newcastle and Scotland, except in places distant from rail- 
ways. They have, therefore, only a land . sale, and that not so 
extensive as formerly when there was a large demand for the 
purposes of lime burning. 

There is little or no firedamp, or carburetted hydrogen, in these 
mines, and accidents from explosions are almost unknown. 
Naked candles are used for lighting. Dr. Thomson, in descending 
Greenlawalls Pit in 1833, found that the name of a Davy lamp 
was unknown to the local miners. 

Many of the old workings were drained by means of levels, 
carried up for considerable distances from the low ground to the 
westward, as at Etal Colliery, Slainsfield, and Ford Mossi but 
these could drain no great breadth of country, as the coals generally 
dip pretty fast to the eastward. 


The deepest pit worked is one at Slainsfield which was sunk 
50 fathoms, or 300 feet, to the Cooper Eye Seam, on the south 
side of the Slainsfield Fault, though Etal Moor Engine Pit, which 
worked the Main Coal at a depth of 36 fatl)oins, was sunk 18 
fathoms further towards the Cooper E)'e, but without reaching it. 

The deepcist working has probably exhausted a breadth of only 
about J mile between the pit and the outcrop where the dip is as low 
as 10°. It is much higher in places. On Etal Moor it is 20° or 
about 1 ill 3, so that tiie breadth of coal worked out is much less. 
Thus all these ooals are virtually intact except for a few hundred 
yards near the outcrop. 

It is not always easy to trace, on the ground, the outcrops of 
the separate seams, even when most or all of them have been 
worked, as the pits are in most cases very numerous. Dayfalls, 
or places where the ground has fallen in when the coals have been 
worked too rear the surface, are the best guide. Also in some 
cases the cro])s of two coals come so close together that one line, 
that of the more important of the two, is made to serve for both. 
Thus, the Three- Quarter Coal, where it has been worked, has its 
outcrop so near that of the Cooper Eye that botli are represented 
by a single line on the one-inch map. • (At Ford Moss the Three- 
Quarter Coal appears to be in & poor state, and does not seem to 
have been worked.) Cenerally, the same applies to Xhe Kiln Coal 
and the Black Hill, whicii are only separated by about 20 feet of 
strata, sometimes much less. 

The Cooper Eye appears to be the best household coal of the 
lot, and nearly all the deepest pits have been sunk to it, but like 
all the other seams it is seldom or never met with free from bands 
or partings of shale or sandstone. 

The Wester or Westeran Coal is a poor seani or assemblage of 
seams with partings ; and though it is said to have been worked 
at Ford Mess, Ford, and Etal, the pits are all old and shallow and 
nothing certain could be learnt about them. 

Detailed description.— Yf e will begin the description of the 
coals at the north edge of the map at Felkington and trace thena 
round to the eastern edge near Doddington Moor Colliery. The 
outcrops of the several seams worked, as the Blackhill, Main 
Coal, and Cooper Eye, can be pretty accurately given at 
Felkington, thanks to the kind assistance of Mr. David Carr, 
farmer at that place, who also showed uie places where the Wester 
Coal had been found in draining, though it does not appear to 
have been worked. The pits here were drained by means of a 
level brought frotn near the Allerdean Mill Burn, a long way to 
the northward. The Fawcet Seam has been probably little worked 
here, and its exact outcrop is uncertain, and most of the others 
become obscure near the southern edge of Felkington township, 
owing to troubles having been met with, so that there are few 
pits till we cross the large fault proved to bound the workings of 
Greenlawalis Pit on the north. A massive rather soft sandstone 
below the main coal crops out in the village of Felkington, and 
sandstone is seen in the fields inst veral places about Edgewell 


Cottage. The E.S.E. dip of the beds is seen at a pond E. of 
the village. On the west side of the Berwick road, north of the 
cross roads, a quarry was opened in coarse, soft, brown sand rock 
which was dug for sand. East of the Duddo Tile Works there 
are many old pits which worked the Fawcet Seam — ^which may 
be seen in the Mattilees Whin Quarry, S.E. of the Tile Works. 
It has thin sandstone above it, is about 2 feet thick, coked by the 
basalt dyke, and rests on sandy clay. The same seam has been 
extensively worked on the south side of Haiden Dean, where the 
beds seem much flatter than usual, and the pits are very shallow, 
and. east of Gatherick by the side of the road running southward, 
nearly as far as the large fault going by Woodend. A coal from 
18 in. to 2 ft. thick is found S.E. of Mattilees near the head of 
Haiden Dean, which is said to have been worked, and another, or 
the same, is seen at Duddo Tile Works, close to a thin limestone. 
These are probably between the Fawcet Seam and the Blackhill 
Coal. There is a 6 in. coal above the Fawcet Seam in the whin 
quarry E. of Haiden Dean, near the junction of three roads. It 
as affected by the whin, and the shales seen with it dip northwards 
at a low angle, 2°-3°; and near the Dean the shales at the mouth 
of an old level are seen dipping in the same direction as much as 
15°. But sections are rare ; almost the only one of any value 
is that given by Mattilees Whin Quarry which runs E. and W. 
for half a mile or so nearly across the strike of the beds, and shows 
us sandstones and shales, with some thin coals in addition to the 
Fawcet, dipping eastward and south-eastward at low angles of 
from 5° to 10°. The sandstone seen at the west end of this long 
quarry is probably that which forms Cow Crag to the southward. 
Sections have been given of the main pits at Greenlawalls, Old 
Greenlawalls and Gatherick. It is doubtful if the Black Hill 
Seam (or Scremerston Main Coal) has been proved or worked 
in the district to which these three pits relate, and little informa- 
tion could be obtained about the other seams. But it is known 
that the Main Coal and the Cooper Eye have been extensively 
worked ; the Hardy and Three-Quarter Coals only to a small 

The following notes about the Cooper- Eye Seam at Green- 
lawalls Pit are from a paper by R. D. Thomson in the Pro- 
ceedings of Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, vol. i., p. 85-90. 
" Over the coal which is worked lies a black limestone .... 
Above the limestone there is a stratum of tills with impressions 
of palm-like plants and bi-valve shells. In some places the lime- 
stone is absent, and the shale occupies its place." The dip was 
to north-east. The coals from this pit seem only to have been 
worked to the nortii of the whin dyke which was never put 
through, so that is is generally supposed to be a slip dyke or 
fault. But this is a mistake, as may easily be seen from Mattilees 
long quarry, where the same strata appear on opposite sides. 
There is, however, a large fault whose position near the village 
of Duddo pretty closely agrees with that of the dyke, and tUs 
fault shifts the outcrops of the coals a long way further east on 
e 88198. T) 


the souih| side, which is that of the downthrow. The pit at Old 
Greenlawalla is said to have worked the coals up to Duddo Gate, 
and the Gatherick Pit probably worked them southwards nearly 
as far. as the Longheugh Fault, but no plans of these pits were 
forthcoming. However, the crops of the Main and Cooper Eye 
■Coals south of Gatherick are fairly good, the sandstone of Long- 
heugh Crags which lies above the Three-Quarter Coal being a 
•good guide there. The thick bed of sandstone which forms so 
marked a feature at Duddo, and on which stands the Tower, is 
probably that which lies above theBulman or Main Coal, and is 
'74 feet thick in the Greenlawalls Pit. This mass of sandstone 
is the cause why the distance between the Main Coal and the 
Diamond Coal is so much greater in this pit than in any of the 
others. These sandstones are very inconstant in thickness ; they 
come in and disappear very rapidly. Sometimes they are so soft 
as to crumble away and make no feature, and only the harder 
portions form crags. The dip of all these coals between Duddo and 
the Longheugh Fault is proBably somewhere to the north of east. 
Thin grey sandstone is seen in the stream on either side the ircad 
N.W. of Greenlawalls Farm, dipping E.N.E. about ]0°-12°, and 
the crags of Longheugh show an undoubted dip to the north- 

South of the Longheugh Fault, which has a very large 
downthrow to the south, we get a narrow strip of these coals 
■extending as far as .to the Slainsfield Fault. Tiie beds dip at 
angles of, 15'-20°, at first mainly to the N.E., but they swing' 
round and finally dip nearly east on Etal Moor, where, in one 
place, the dip is as much as 30°. In this area the Fawcet Seam 
was formerly much worked near Etal Colliery on the north side; 
of Duddo Mill Burn, but it does not seem to have been much 
worked on Etal Moor. In a pit 6 fathoms deep, near the road 
crossing the moor, it is said to have been 2 ft. thick, and near 
this it would seem that another and lower seam had also been 
wrought, which is, perhaps, that seen south of Duddo Mill Burn 
at the Mill Pond — where we get the following section — dip. N.E. 
20° :— 

Hied ColKery Mill Pond North side. 

Sandstone rather rougUy but not thickly bedded, perLaps - 10 
Shale, sandy, about - - - . - 10 

Shale not wen seen, perhaps - - - - 20 

Containing near base : — 
Brown limestone 1-2 ft. 
Shale - - 2-3 ft. 

Goal - - — 6 in. 

Shale - - 3-4 ft. 

Below this, sandstone seen, a few feet. 

This sandstone is apparently continued on the south side and 
overiies a coal seam nearly 2 feet in thickness. 

The limestone of this section, greyish blue inside weathering 
brown, is seen again 550 yards to the S.E. close to a fence, and 
is probably that before mentioned as seen at Duddo Tile Works. 


Near Quarry House, where the dip is nearly due north, some 
thick whitish sandstones, which come above the Black Hill Seam, 
■contain plant-remains. There is a very thick sandstone south of 
tliis whicii comes between the Black Hill and Cooper Eye Seams 
and forms Rhodes Hill, completely cutting out (or nipping out) 
the Main Coal which there does not exist. The sandstone is 
white and massive, and of great thickness. 

1 At Etal Colliery, Mr. Neale, of Ford, sank a pit for the Main 
Goal, which was never found'. The following is a verbal account 
of this shaft supplied by himself: — ■ 

Various thin beds down to 18 in. or 2 ft. limestone forming 

roof of Blachhill Sea/m - - - - - 36 

Metal and various thin beds with Diamond Seam in middle - 24 
iPr^estone, which was proved to 18 fathoms - " \ i fiR 

Main coal said to be absent - - . . - / 

This sandstone seems also of great thickness on Etal Moor 
where, at the Old Engine Pit, 18 fathoms of sandstone was sunk 
through below the Main Coal in a fruitless attenipt to reach the 
Cooper Eye Seam. The Main Coal here was about 10 fathoms 
below the Blackhill. The latter coal, I was informed by 
Mr. Robson, of Slainsfield, contained in places balls or calcareous 
■concretions, irregular lumps 2 ft. and upwards in diameter. 
About 200 yards south of this pit, a cut was made exposing the 
beds between the Blackhill and Main Coals. They consisted 
mostly of shales dipping N.E. about 30°, and containing four 
thin coals. South of this and near the Slainsiield Fanlt the 
Scremerston Coal Company were, in 1881, working the Cooper 
Eye Seam by means of an incline going in at the crop of the coal 
which dips eastward at 1 in 3, or 19°. The air shaft was on the 
crop of the Main Coal which is 22 fathoms cr 132 ft. above the 
Cooper Eye. 

The following is a rough section of this shaft : — 

-.r ■, o ■, Fathoms; 

Metal, &c., about ...... g 

Freestone ...... -13 

Three-QwMier Ooal. 

Beds, various - . 2-3 

Cooper Eye Goal. 
The following is a section of ihe Cooper Ui/e and associated 
beds here — 

.Splint coal 



- 1 









- 2 


Ft. In. 

.Splint coal - - - 9 "I 

Band - . -06^26 CooiJer Eye Seam. 

■Ground coal . - - 15 J 

Metal fire clay 

Freestone beds - 


At the 50-fathom pit at Slainsfield, south of the fault, most 
of the seams were worked ; certainly the Blackhill, Main Coal, 
Three- Quarter Coal, and Cooper Eye, and peihaps others. A 
few ,small pits to the. eastward, not far from the present Cooper 
Eye, Woi-kings north of the fault, are probably down to the 
Fawcet Seam, but nothing is known of this coal in the obscure 



ground to the southward. North-west of Slainsfield close to the 
fault, the beds have a high dip, but on Brownridge to the southr 
ward where much sandstone is seen, the dip is low. Between 
this and Ford, and on Ford Common, there is great uncertainty 
about the coal-crops. Very little is seen, and on Ford Common 
the faults are said to be very numerous in the old workings, so 
that the lines here given for the coals must be considered as only 
giving a general idea of the run of the beds. The pit at the 
house on Ford Common is said to be 22 fathoms to the Main 
Coal. On the west side of the main road Mr. Neale, of Ford, 
sunk a shaft 16 fathoms deep to the Cooper Eye, but he found 
several tiaults ranging E.N.E. so that the workings were aban- 
doned. The seam was about 2 ft. 6 in. thick with small partings. 
A pit of 9 fathoms deep was, at one time, sunk to the Wester 
Coal, near this. The coal is said to have consisted of tliree seams 
each about 1 ft. thick with partings of 2 ft. or so. There would seem 
to be a fault between these workings and those of Slainsfield, or 
perhaps more than one, ranging about N.E. and throwing down to 
the north. It seems to be a broken synclinal in which there is 
one or more of the lower beds of coal in places. This synclinal 
runs in a S.W. direction through the village of Foid, on the 
south side of which coal is to be met with in the churchyard ; and 
gouthward from this on the east side of the road leading to 
Kimmerston (in the angle) an old trial pit was sunk to a poor 
seam at a depth of 36 feet. This might be the Wester Coal. 
The limit of these beds on the west must be the dean on the west 
aide of the park where sandstones, a good deal crushed and 
slickened, with some purplish shale, dip at high angles to the S.E., 
being in some places vertical There is probably a fault parallel 
to the dean and running down it. This high dip continues on 
beyond the village into the part called Kelso Dean where the beds 
dip E.S.E. at .20-25°; and here a coal seems to have been 
worked, as there are traces of pits on the east side. The following 
8 a section &een where the stream at the head of the dean bends 
nearly at right angles and has an E. and W. course : — 

Ooal, thickness not cleai-. Wester Coal P 

Fireclay 1' 6". 

Shaly sandstone 4'. 

Ooal thin. 


The dip is E.S.E. at 20°. 

There must be one or more large faults on the south side of 
Ford Common workings, throwing up to the south and shifting the 
outcrops of ail the coals a long way to the east under Black- 
chester Hill— the Ford Moss Workings— -where all the seams 
have been worked from the Blackhill to the Wester Coal. In 
1881, however, the only seam being worked at the Moss was the 
Kiln Coal (previously not much wrought). An old pit in which 
other seams were formerly won was reopened by Mr. Brown, and 
this seam was being got. Mr. Brown gave me the following 


account of the beds about the horizon of the Kiln Coal in tlila 


El. In. 
Blachhill Seam. 

Hard grey freestone - - - - 1 

Tills - - - - - - 3 

Hard white freestone - - - - - 9 

Tills - 2 

Dark freestone - - - - 2 

KiU Goal, locally known as Fish f ^°P °°^\]^. ™®- 

I Bottom coal 15 ins. 
. Metal for kerving - - - . . 

Freestone- - - - - - - - 2 

Blue metal, about - - - - - 18 

Main Coal. 

I was informed by an old miner that this same coal, Fish and 
Taties, was at one time worked in shallow pits of about 3 fathoms 
deep on the north-east side of the Black Hill, and that the seam 
was there very good, being 4 ft. 6 in. thick with only a band of 4 or 
5 inches. Most of the other seams are now apparently wrouglit 
out, or nearly so, as far as the old level is available for drainage. 
The Black Hill Seara and the Kiln Coal are exceptionally close 
together in the section last given, being about 6 ft. apart. In the 
general section of Ford Colliery given on p. 33, there are 17 ff. of 
beds between them, and 32 ft. 5 in. between the Black Hill and the 
Main Coals. In the general section this distance is 34 ft. 3 in,, anc? 
this was probably taken near the west end of the Moss, as the 
distance between the two seams increases to the eastward, and is 
said to have been 100 ft. in the Moss Pit, the most easterly one. 
Beyond this pit a fault was proved running N.W. and throwing 
down 9 ft. to the east. To the west of this, and nearly under the 
centre of the Moss is another running nearly in the same direction, 
and this also throws down to the east ; but it has this peculiarity 
that while the throw in the Main Coal is 42 feet, in the Black 
Hill Seam above it is only 20 feet. The thick sandstone which 
lies above the Black Hill Seam is well seen in several places on 
and about the hill from which it takes its name, which is sur- 
mounted by a camp. There are several quarries in which the 
sandstone is seen dipping to the S.E. It is soft and yeUow, and 
is in great demand for sanding or scouring floors. The beds 
under the moss seem to lie in a gentle synclinal, for I was told 
that there was a rise in the beds towards the south near the 
southern edge of the moss, where a large fault running E. and 
W. bounds the coals which do not crop out there, but they abut 
against the Fell Sandstones of Brownridge Hill. The throw of 
the fault down to the north is unknown, but it must be at least 
more than the thickness of the beds between the Black Hill and 
the Wester Coal, and is probably much more. In the year 1739 
a series of five borings was made to the N.W. of the Brownridge 
Hill probably with the view of finding the coals, but without 
success. The exact position of these is not known, but they 
would appear to have been somewhere near the old level which is 

















several times mentioned. The deepest of these was No. 3 borings 
which was 72 feet 3 inches. We give the details of No. 5 as a 

Nc. 5 Hole, bored at Ford Colliery, about 40 yards east from; 
the fourth, July 7th, I739j proved the following strat£i:-4— 

Soil and- brown clay » ~, .- 

Soft greenish, grey metal, with brown and black scames 

in it, and a small siping of water - - - - 

Black metal 

Bi'own and grOy seamy metal ... 

Strong red post- ...,.- 
Bed and grey post .... 

G-rey and drni post girdles, mixed with whin 
Red post ..... 

Strong red post, with mixture of whin girdles with soft 

saudy partings - - - - - 

In open red and grey post, with water . 

TiiBre is no doubt that these boring* are in beds below the 
coals, either in the Fell Sandstones or in the Tuedian rocks^ from 
the greenish grey and brown character of the shales, and the red- 
posts or sandstones with their whin girdles, which are merely 
harder portions of the sandstone. 

There is probably also a large fault near the east side of Ford 
Moss, ranging nearly N. and S,, and throwing up to the E. in a 
line wiih that which cuts off the Dun Limesl;one and the Fawcet 
Seam at their western end. This brings the coal crops out again 
near tlie N.E. corner of the moss, where they are said to be nearly 
on end and striking E. and W. A little south of this outlet of 
the moss a boi'ing was put down to a depth of 70 fathoms, I was 
told, and found no coal. The crop of the Fawcet Seam north of 
this is bent into a horse-shoe shape and appears cut off on' the 
south side by an E. and W. fault. The same coal is said to have 
been worked in a shallow pit of about 3 fathoms deep on the N. 
side of Ford Moss, about 200 yards N.E. of the Moss Shaft before- 
mentioned. East of the Horse Bog both the Fawcet Seam and 
the Main Coal have been worked pretty continuously, but the 
Cooper Eye and the Biackhill seams, being poor, hare not been 

The beds here dip to the north-east. A pit was sunk about 
22 fathoms to the Cooper Eye sea'n to the N.W. of the Horse 
Bog, and on the W". side of the stream that comes from Ford- 
Moss. The coal was in a poor state and only 14 inches thick. 
A limestone, 4 feet thick, which lies below the Main Coal was cut 
near the pit-mouth in a drain. The Main Coal was worked at 
Doddington Moor Colliery at a depth of 16 fathoms. The 
Fawcet Seam near this is about 10 or 12 fathoms below ' the 
Dun : Limestone, and there is probably a distance of about '38 
fathonis between the Fawcet and the Main Coal, so the 
lattor is about 300 feet below the Dun Limestone. South of this- 


the Main Coal is repeated by an E. and W. fault, apparently in 
a line with the Ford Moss Fault, but with the throw reversed. 
The coals can be seen in the cut below the Horse Bog, dipping 
N.N.E. at 20°-25°, and several have been worked near the crop 
over the flattish ground to the eastward. The Main Coal, the 
Cooper Eye, and the Wester Coal are probably the three which > 
have been worked. The Blaclshill is said to occUr there also, but 
it doe3 not appear to have been tried. A parrot coal, or kind of 
oil-shale, has been sunk through in the Main Coal pits. Nothing 
is known of these seams west of the stream, and near the eastern: 
edge of the area the workings all stop — probably from faults- 
having been met with. 

W. G. 



Caebonifeeotjs — contin ued. 
Limestone Group or Oalcabeous Division. 

The following is a general section of the beds in this division, 
so far as found in the area under consideration : — 

Shales and Sandstones - - 20 to 30 feet. 

Low Dean Limestone - - 25 feet. 

Sandstone and Shale - - - 60 „ 

Acre Limestone (called Dun Lime- 
stone, at Lowick) - - 20 „ 
Sandstone and Shale with probably 

several coals and a thin limestone 100 „ 
Eelwell Limestone - - - 25 „ 

Sandstones and Shales with 5 or 6 
thin limestones, and probaby 
several coals - - 300 „ 

Oxford or Greenses Limestone 
(Greenses coal a few fathoms 
below) - - - - 15 to 18 feet. 

Sandstone and Shale - 200 feet. 

Limestone (with coal below from 

1 foot to 1 foot 6 inches) - S „ 

.Sandstone and Shale with coals, in- 
cluding the Muckle JHowgate 
Seam, Oil Shale, Little Howgate 
Seam, and Woodend Seam - 250 „ 

Woodend Limestone - - 12 to 15 feet. 

Sandstone and Shale - - 80 feet. 

Dun Limestone - - ■ - 6 to 8 feet. 

Coal (Dun Coal) - - - 1 foot to 

1 foot 6 inches. 
It will be seen that the total thickness in this area amounts to 
about 1,125 feet, of which the limestones take up nearly 150 feet 
(including the thin beds). 

About another 100 feet would give us the highest thick lime- 
stone of the series — the Dryburn, which is the equivalent of the 
Main, Great, or 12 Fathom Limestone in Yorkshire and Durham — 
and often called in south Northumberland the Ten Yard Lime- 
stone. Many of the limestones have coals accompanying them 

the coals often lying immediately below the limestones, and bein<T 
very constant. 

General Lie of the Beds. 

As will be seen from the map the base of the Limestone eeries 
forms a rough curve from Felkington round to Ford Moss and the 


E. edge of the area. This curve is, however, much broken by 
large faults, which shift the line now to the eastward and now to 
the westward along with the coal series below. 

But we find generally that south-easterly and easterly dips 
prevail at first near Felkington and BowsdenMoor, while north- 
easterly dips prevail for the most part further south in the lowest 
beds, — and as, roughljr speaking, most of the higher beds do the 
like, we get our highest beds towards the centre of the curve, 
viz., on the east side of the area two miles or so S. from 
the N.E corner. There are, however, a good many local 
Tariations in the dip, one or two of which deserve particular 
notice. There is a marked and sharp synclinal which runs in a 
N.N.E. direction from the large limestoae-quarries on Ford 
Common, passing to the W. of Coalharbour to probably near 
Bowsden Moor. To the eastward of this runs parallel an 
anticline from S.W. of Barmoor Ridge by the Winterburn Quarries 
to about Woodside. 

The Dun Limestone, the lowest of the series, is generally a 
hard bluish compact limestone — not often burnt for lime, but 
sometimes quarried for road-metal. It has got its name of Dun 
from its weathering, being often of a rusty brown colour outside. 
It has generally a thick shale bed above it, like most other lime- 
stones. The Woodend limestone is much thicker than the Dun — 
generally twice as thick, and it has been largely quarried for lime- 
works. It is almost always light coloured — grey, or nearly white 
— and some of the upper beds are earthy or shaly, with many corals. 

Generally there is little shale over this limestone, and often 
sandstone rests directly upon it. These two limestones may con- 
veniently be taken together in giving an account of their distribution. 

Beginning at the north end of the area, near Felkington, the 
Dun Limestone only appears, the Woodend being faulted out. 
Crossing the fault the limestones run parallel down to the large 
fault north of Greenlawalls Colliery. The lower bed is, how- 
ever, little seen, while the Woodend Limestone has been largely 
quarried all through a plantation to the S.E. of Felkington. The 
dip is east and E.S.E., as high as 20°, but the limestone is nearly 
all covered up, though shale, which comes nbove, and also sand- 
stone sometimes coarse and massive are seen. By the large fault 
both beds are shifted a long way to the eastward of Duddo Tile 
Works. There is an old quarry in the Woodend a little S. of the 
fault and north of the old camp — and the beds from description 
given appear to have been a good deal disturbed. West of the 
camp the Dun has been quarried, and it crops out in the steep 
bank south of the camp. Crossing Haiden Dean to the S. side, 
the Dun Limestone is seen — to about 5 ft. - thick — in a small 
quarry, and the Dun Coal is said to have been worked below. 

The Woodend Limestone has been largely quarried west of 
Bowsden Moor on both sides of the road. The eastward dip about 
here seems small, in fact, in the quarry south of the road, the beds 
are neaxiy flat. Corals abound in the upper part of the limestone. 
A. fault which may not be large, between this and Lickarmoor 



shifts the bed to the westward, and again we have the two lime- 
stones running parallel for some distance, the coralline Woodehd 
having been quarried in the plantation N.E. of the cross roads. 
At Woodend, f rom which plaCe the limestone takes its name, it 
flattens out over a large area where it has been much quarried 
for lime-burning. Near the house, where the dip is east at 6° 
about 10 to 12 ft. of sandy shalo, and shaly sandstone overlie 5 ft. of 
limestone and calcareous shale, the lower beds not being visible. 
Further north about 10 ft of limestone is seen capped by 2 to 3 ft. 
of calcareous shale with corals. Much of the limestone is grey and 
earthy looking, and a good many fossils have been collected from 
it — a list of which will be found in the appendix. South of 
Woodend the limestone is cut off b}' the great Longheugh fault, 
and both it and the Dun Limestone are shifted a mile, or so to 
the westward to near Etal Oollierj/^, whence both run parallel 
round to near Watchlaw. But little is seen of the Dun limestone 
however, except just north of the whin dyke ; while the Woodend 
has been a good deal quaiTied. In the long narrow quarry S. of 
the Longheugh fault, where the dip is 20^-30° N.N.E. andKE. — 
about 12 to 15 ft. of sandstone, white and brown, rather coarse — 
with traces of coal overlies thin-bedded grey limestone weathering 
yellowish, with many fossils in places. There is a coral bed at 
top, close to the fault, and the limestone thin-bedded and argilla- 
ceous is only seen up to 5 or 6 ft., so that probably the limestone 
beds arc better and thicker further dovvn. There are quarries 
again in it near the whin dyke, and it was much worked 
formerly to tlie south all through the wood east of Etalmoor,. 
where sandstone seems generally to overlie the limestone. 

By the Slainsfield fault which, like that of Longheugh, throws 
down on the south, both beds are shifted Svestwards, probably for 
nearly J mile, but little is seen of them as the ground is obscured 
by drift, and in the faulted ground of Ford Common their position 
is very doubtful. Only in one place, nearly a mile S. of the 
Slainsfield fault and on the S. side of the main road to Lowick,. 
do we find some old quarries in what may be the Dun Limestone, 
but the Woodend Limestone is nowhere seen. 

An anticlinal, which ranges from the S.W. of Barmoor 
Ridge to Woodside or farther, brings up both the Dun and 
Woodend Limestones and very nearly tb.e Fawcet Coal. That 
of Woodend has been quarried on both sides of the anticline at 
Winterburn Quarry, the beds dipping away from the centre 
about 20° on either side. Only the upper part of the bed is seen 
— consisting of 8 or 9 feet of calcareous shale aud shaly and earthy 

Further to the north the liinestone is seen again in quarries by 
the roadside — here it seems to be thrown up by a fauli which 
bounds it on the south. The dip is N.N.W." to N.W. 20°-25°, 
and Litlwdendron junceuni is abundant. In orie place is the 
following section : — 

Earthy, shaly, and rubbly limestone, 6 to 7 feet. 

Blue compact limeBtone, thicker bedded, 10 feet or more, 


The same lim.estone is met with again in quarries at Coal- 
harbour, where the dip is much less, only 5°-10° between W. 
and N.W. On the other side of the anticline a limestone wa'3 
quarried at Brackens! de and bored'to, further S.E., near the bog. 
This it would appear should h6 the Woodend, but some say it 
was the Oxford Limestone that was quarried here, ' The Dun 
Limestone near the centre of the anticline has not been quarried,, 
but was proved ill drains, iind in one place it crops out at the 

We meet with these beds again on the east side of Ford Moss> 
The Dun Limestone curves round above ' the Fawcet Coal, and 
north of the east end of the Moss 1 ft. of the limestone may be seen 
in a small burn, with the Dun Coal 18 in. thick below. 'There are 
also old quarries in it W. of Southmoor. The Woodend has been 
quarried on the E. side of the house, and the soft sandstone- 
which comes above the limestone may still be seen in the old 
quarries. Both beds are seen again S. of Southmoor running a 
parallel course. The Woodend, however, is only seen in one 
place on the W. side of tiie main road, where the soft reddish and 
yellow sandrock above has been dug for sand. The Dun Lime- 
stone has been much quarried here. The quarry extending for 
500 yards and crossing the main road. The limestone is said 
to have been 6 ft. tliick, and it has shales above dipping N.E. 
about 10°. 

Between the Woodend and the Oxford Limestones from 
460 to 500 ft. of beds intervene — principally sandstones and shales 
with several poor coals, some cf v.-hich, however, have been 
worked. There is only one known limpstone that has been, 
quarried in all this tiiickness of beds, and it occurs nearly midway 
between the two limestones mentioned. It is a hard, compact,, 
blocky, somewhat nodular, grey or. light-coloured limestone, 
weathering brown in places, which is seen where it crosses the 
course of the whin dyke to the S.W. of Woodend, and in small 
quarries near. It seems to have been worked for road-metal. 
Here it is dipping about E.N.E. at 6°, and is probably from 5 to 
6 ft. thick. South of the next long, bog, going towards Waichlaw, 
it is seen in small quarries in a wood dipping E. at 15°, and it can 
be traced past Watchlaw till it is cut off by the fault there. It is- 
thrown westward by the fault abont j mile, and thence can be 
traced southward for some distance — as far as the N. side of Ford' 
Common, where it has been quarried. It is seen again further 
south, to the west of the large limestone-quarries on the Common,, 
and then becomes lost in the faulted and obscure ground. 

On the E. side of the synclinal this bed' should crop out awain 
west of tl;e Winterbilrn and* Coalharboirr Quarries, bui it is seen 
only in one place W. of Coailharbourjust outside the High Wood. 
It is, however, probably this b'erl thafwas worked 't'> the S.W., 
of Barmoor Ridge about | mile, in a quarry ranging N. and S., 
now filled with water. • The thin sandstone seen above, dips W. 
at 15°. 


To the S.S.E. of Woodside a limestone has been obscurely 
traced from the whin dyke in a southerly direction to where the 
easterly dip of 10° occurs. It is here a brown limestone, but its 
identity is doubtful. If the Brackensi^e Limestone is the 
Woodend this should be the Watchlaw Limestone. On account 
of the thinness of this bed and the drift which covers much of 
the ground where it should occur, this Watchlaw Limestone has 
not been generally traced. It is found, however, to the S.W. of 
Ancroft Southmoor, where it crops out in the fields on the E. 
boundary of Felkington township, and it is here said to have a 
coal below, 12 to 18 in. thick. On the south side of the road to the 
S. of Dunsall is a quarry in limestone dipping N. at 10°, but only 
2 or 3 ft. of the limestone can be seen — impure looking. This is 
probably the bed that seems to crop out at the edge of the area 
at the N.W. corner of Moss Plantation, and it may be the 
Watchlaw Limestone. 

There is no good general section of all the beds between the 
Woodend and the Oxford Limestones. The sides of Haiden 
Dean afford some sections in the upper sandstones, shales, and 
coals — the part of the Dean that is S. and E. of Ancroft South- 
moor. As will be seen by the changeable dips on the map, the 
beds are undulating and the sandstones are often coarse and 
reddish. Berrington Burn, which runs N.E. from Woodend, 
also gives occasional sections in various parts of the series. The 
best continuous section is that in the beds between the Woodend 
and the Watchlaw Limestones, afforded by the long whin-dyke 
quarry west of High Wood. The dip is E.N.E from 5° tp 8° 
for the distance of nearly ^ mile, but near the Woodend Lime- 
stone it increases to 12° or 15°. There is shale above the 
Watchlaw Limestone, and shale with some sandstones for about 
,30 ft. below. These beds contain a coal 1 ft. or more. A thick 
mass of sandstone follows, and then alternations of sandstone and 
shale, which is followed by a thick mass of shale, with some thin 
sandstone lying on the E. side of Hazely Hill Plantation. In 
this shale occurs a bed of oil-shale. Further to the west sandstone 
seems to prevail, and W. of the Plantation, near where the dyke 
is shifted, we find it disturbed. In the beds lower still two coals 
are seen in the side of the old quarry. The coals which occur in 
these beds have been proved or worked in various places. The 
Greenses Coal which comes a few fathoms below the Oxford or 
Greenses Limestone, seems to have been worked on the S. side of 
Haiden Dean, opposite to Ancroft Southmoor, It is a coarse coal, 
thickness not ascertained. Coal has also been worked on the 
Dean N,N,W. of Berrington Law, but this would appear to be 
another and lower bed. 

The Greenses Goal was sunk to in two places near Whitelee, 
and was found to be nearly 2 ft. thick, but was not a true coal I 
was informed, only a parrot coal, or oil-shale. 

In the district to the east, there are two coals about this horizon, 
and one of them has a thin limestone of 1 or 2 ft. near it. The 
Coal of from 1 ft. to 18 ir. which occurs below the Watchlaw 


Limestone has been previously mentioned. The next in order of 
descent is called the Muckle Howgate Seam. It is not known 
exactly within the present area how far below the Greenses 
this coal comes, but it would seem to come below tiie Watchlaw 
Limestone, and it may lie about 200 ft. below the Greenses. There 
is an old coal-pit on Felkingtoo Southmoor in about this position. 
The Muckle Howgate seam was worked to the S.S.W. of 
Barmoor Eiilge in pits from 8 to 11 fathoms deep. Where the 
beds are said to dip S.E. about 1 in 6, or 10°. For information 
about this I am indebted to Mr. W. Brown of Barmoor. The 
coal is about 6 ft. thick with the bands, but, as will be seed 
from the section below, it is a dirty seam, and not worth much on 
account of the bands. 

Section of Muehle Howgate Goal. 

Tills for roof. 

Top coal, 10 or 11 inches. Left on. 

Coaly metal, 30 inches. 

Coal, 4 inches. 

Metal parting. 

Coal, 3 inches. 

Metal parting. 

Bottom coal, 15 inches. 

Parrot coal, 5 or 6 inches. 

Hardstone, 15 inches. 


A coal was found by boring 8J fathoms below. This coal was 
good, and 2 ft. thick, and said to be the Little Howgate Seam, but 

1 do not know of any place where the two Howgate Seams come 
BO close together as this. Perhaps the coal worked between 
Woodside and Woodend was the Muckle Howgate. The beds 
seem to be flat, the coal here lying in the centre of the synclinal 
previously described. There are a number of old coal workings 
about which no information is obtainable. There are some N.E. 
of Whistlebare which may be in the Muckle Howgate, and, 
probably, the same as the coal which is seen to be 3 ft, thick in 
Berrington Burn to the northward, where the dip is N.E. 25°-30°. 
This coal was sunk to a little further to the N.E., and is described 
as being 3 feet tliick, and splinty. Further to the eastward, about 
^ mile, a pit was sunk 2^ or 3 fathoms deep to a good coal, 

2 ft. thick, by the side of the Burn where the beds form a steep 
anticline. This, however, is probably a higher seam than the 
Muckle Howgate. 

Below the Muckle Howgate are in places two workable seams 
called the Little Howgate Seam and the Woodend Seam. The 
latter is nearest to the Woodend Limstone, and is sometimes con- 
founded with the former. The Woodend coal was worked at the 
Winterburn Quarry and was 20 inches thick. It comes about 20 or 
25 ft. above the Limestone. It has also been worked at the W. side 
of the quarries further north. It is probably the same coal that 
was worked on the N. side of the Woodend Quarry, though this 


has been called the Little How gate, and there are traces of pits 
E. of the Felkhigloii Quarry where, perhaps, the same seam was 
TrrougLt, and some coal was got west of Watchlaw, In a similar 
pDsition with respect to the limestone. 

Between Woodside and Brackenside two coals have been 
worked about which there is some doubt. I was inclined to 
think they were the coals above the Woodend Limestone from the' 
general structure of the country, but Mr. W. Brown, wlio worked 
them, and who kindly gave me the informntion about them, 
called the upper of the two the Faiocet Coal. According to him 
•the following is the general section : — 

Freestone roof. 

Coal, 3 feet (including bands), called Fawoet. 

Freestone bottom | about 3 fathoms. ' 

[Top Coal 1 
Little Coali Metal Band ^2 feet. 

[Bottom. Coal J 
Black seggar clay hottom. 

I thought it more likely that these were the Little Howgate sind 
the Woodend Seams, but as no limestone can be seen near, the 
point must be left undecided. All these coals have been wrought 
principally for burning lime, which was formerly done on a very 
large scale. 

Thei'e is a bed of oil-shale accompanied by a thin yellowish 
limestone which comes between the Muckle and Little Howgate 
Seams, but nearest to the latter. The oil-shale, and limestone 
both crop out on Felkington Southmoor, about 100 yards E. of/lhe 
•N. end of Felkington Quarry, and they lie 100 ft. or more abova 
the Woodend limestone. The oil-shale is seen also on the E. side 
of Hazely Hill Plantation by the side of the whin dyke there. . 

The Oxford or Greenses Limestone has been largely quarried 
near Dunsall and Whitelee, and in the deep quarries on Ford 
Common, near the Barmoor West Cottages. Its names are 
derived from places further north. Oxford is a hamlet Avhere 
there are large quarries, 4 miles from Berwick, and Greenses is 
the common name of a farm called on the map Ancroft Greens, 
rather more than a mile N.E. of Ancroft Southmoor, where also 
the limestone was much worked, but whose large and deep 
quarries are now filled with water. This place also gives its name 
to the Greenses coal. 

On Ford Common the limestone has been quarried near the 
south end of the synclinal which ranges from here in a N.N.E. 
direction as before mentioned, and this is the only part of the 
synclinal where this limestone is found. The outcrop seems 
crossed by a fault, running in a N.E, direction, which throws down 
on the south. To the south of this, fault the limestone has been 
quarried almost continuously under a great depth of shale, and 
it has also been worked on the N. of. the fault — the. old workino's. 
thus taking the form of a broken oval . ring. On the west side the 
dip varies from 20° to 50° and on the E. side it is a;bout 35°, 


On the S. enrl the dip is as low as 10° to the north, and 
here the limestone has not only been worked in the open under a 
depth of 30 ft. of grey shale with tliin sandstone in the upper part, 
but it has also been mined for at a depth of 50 or 60 ft. below the 
surface — a shtift marked as a coal-pit on tlie 6-inch Ordnance Map 
having been sunk in connexion with these undergrouncl limestone 
workings, and a long level brought up from the lower ground on 
the S.E. to drain the quarries. This limestone is generally of a 
light blue or bluish-grey colour, much of it encrinital and from 
15 to 18 ft. thick. The same thick bed of grey shale caps the 
limestone in the Whitelee and Dunsall Quarries, and towards 
the west end of these workings from 25 to 30 ft. of it may be seen 
where the beds are dipping N.E. 12°, which, however, is not the 
usual direction of the dip about there — the strike being almost 
exactly E. and "W. and the dip N. 10°-15°. However, at the east 
end of the workings E. of Dunsall; the beds turn round at right 
angles and dip E. 10.° Faults bound the limestone at eacli end 
and one repeats the beds in the middle. The whole thickness 
of this limestone cannot be seen in any of these quarries. Often 
no limestone can be seen for long distances. The best section of 
it is at the west end of the Dunsall Quarry, nearly due north of 
Barmoor Buildings, where about 12ft. of limestone is seen in three 
beds or posts in succession 4 ft. 6 ins., 3 ft. 6 ins., and 4 ft. thick, 
and where the dip is N.N.E. 12°-15°. 

Taking the whole district this bed has probably been more 
largely quarried for lime-burning than any other. 

Haiden Dean Quarries. To the S.W. of Ancroft Sonthmoor 
th.e Oxford Limestone was once largely quarried on both sides of 
Haiden Dean and on the S. side some 20 or 30 feet of the shale 
that comes above the limestone may still be seen. The dip seems 
to be to the south. It is probably this limestone which caused 
the swallow holes on the Felkington Estate west of Threaplea 
Plantation, which are worth noticing as they are so rare in north 
Northumberland notwithstanding the abundance of beds of 
limestone, A large fault which here throws cut nearly all the 
beds between the Oxford and Woodend limestones cuts off the 
crop of the Oxford at Loth ends, but the fault cannot be traced to 
the eastward, and its throw probably decreases raoidly in that 

Limestone at Berrington Law. S.E. of this place a limestone 
dipping to the S.S.E. has been quarried and burnt, and this may 
probably be the Oxford from its position. What little of it could 
be seen was impure-looking and weathered a rusty brown ; but 
this is often the character of the ilppermost part of many of the 
limestones. Eed sandstone, which must lie below, crops out to 
the W. of the house. It is quite possible that the limestone 
which appears in the burn to the southward where the E. dip of 
15° occurs, may be this. 

It is doubtful if the Oxford Limestone appears anywhere else in 
the area unless it -is that which comes to the surface in one or 
.two places close to an old quarry nearly^ mile S.E. of Woodside 


and about the same cUstince to the S.W. of the Bowsden Wh in 
Quarry. But the ground here is obscure and perhaps faulted, so 
that it cannot be traced far. 

Between the Oxford Liimestone and the Eelwell there intervenes 
probablj' as much as 300 feet of sandstone, shales, and limestones, 
with thin coals, but all the beds are poorly seen in this map. 
There are usuallv six thin limestones in this thickness of beds, 
varying from 3 to about 8 ft. thick — the thickest being generally 
the second and third from the Eelwell. One of the limestones is 
seen at the Bowsden Whinstone Quarry and in the. little stream S. 
of it, dipping E.N.E. 10°-15°. The following section is seen 
in the quarry : — 


Limestone, 3 to 4 feet. 

Shale, 8 feet. 

Ooal, 6 inches. 


Below this comes sandstone at the W. end of the quarry on 
the N. side. The limestone and coal seem both shifted as much 
as 100 ft. horizontally by the dyke, which would seem here to 
coincide with a fault throwing down 15 or 20 feet to the south. 
This limestone is perhaps the fourth below the Eelwell. To the 
eastward of the quarry by the stream we see shale and sandstone 
which lie above the limestone, and still further eastward another 
limestone, a higher, and probably a thicker, bed may be obscurely 
traced across the fields. Crossing the fault to the southward we 
find traces of three or four limestones of this series in the burn 
going toward Dunsall, with some small sections in sandstone and 
shale also. (This burn is not marked on the 1-inch Ordnance 
Map, but the northerly dips marked as 10°, 15°, and 25° will 
show where it is.) About J mile W.S.W. of Bowsden West Farm, 
where the W. dip of 40° is marked, a limestone occurs which 
is probably one of those under description. The section is as 
follows : — 

Well bedded sandstone, several feet. 

Shale, 12 to 15 feet. 

Limestone, grey, rather compact, encrinital, S to 6 feet. 


(Gap of several feet.) 

Thick bedded sandstone. 

The EelweU Limestone has been largely quarried at Eelwell 
in the adjoining sheet, where it is about 25 feet thick, but 
all the stone is not worked. The most westerly of the two 
quarries N. of the W. end of Bowsden village is in this lime- 
stone. It dips E. 30°-35° at the north end of the quarry, 
decreasing to 16° at the S. end, and the bed flattens still more as 
it turns round to the eastward and. dips northward under the 
village of Bowsden, where it may be seen in several places, and 
again in quarries to the eastward. A small portion of this lime- 
stone appears again at the edge of the area on the S. side of the 
large fault, which is seen south of the whin dyke trending to 


the S.W. This connects itself with the limestone quarried at 
Eelwell and other places in the area of the sheet to the E. 

So far as is known, the two uppermost limestones only appear 
for short distances in the N.E. of the area, to the north of the 
west end of Bowsden village. Of these two the Low Dean has 
not been quarried, and is only seen at the surface in one or two 
places in the fields. It has not been much quarried anywhere in 
north Northumberland, except at Sandbanks, near Scremerston, 
and at Lowick Low Dean, and the limestone is locally named 
after both places. Little is seen of the beds between this lime- 
Btone and the Acre. The latter is called the Dun Limestone, 
near Lowick, where it has been a good deal quarried. There is 
a quarry in it also in the area N. of the west end of Bowsden 
village, one, and the most easterly of the two Bowsden quarries, 
but it is full of water, and the limestone is not well seen. A few 
feet of shale that comes above may be seen, but not sufficient to 
show well its chai-acter — it generally is a dark-coloured shale with 
conspicuous ironstone nodules. Here the limestone dips E.N.E., 
but it turns round like the bed below, and in the district to the E. 
it dips to the N., having been worked a good deal at Berrington 
Quarry to the N.E. of Bowsden. Below this limestone there 
usually lies a bed of coal 6 to 12 in, thick, which is said to liave been 
worked at the Berrington Quarry and at the Dun Quarry, 
Lowick ; and two other coals which have been worked, but not in 
the area under consideration, lie- respectively about 30 and 55 ft.^ 
below the limestone. Further down and about 20 to 25 ft. above 
the Eelwell is a thin limestone bed, generally 4 or 6 ft., not seen 
in this sheet. 

[For a fuller account of the upper limestones from the Eelwell 
to the Dryburn, see the Memoir on the adjoining sheet to the 
east— 110 S.E.] 

W. G. 

e 88198. 



Intrusive Igneous Eocks. 

I, ,- . Granite, i> 

In thrs area the Granite exposed is of a coarser vavi^ty than' 
tiiat lisud,! in the adjoining tract to the south. It consists of 
rfeddish grey and red orthocla'se crystals with black and yellow^ 
mica ahd interstitial quartz. The felspar is sometimes plagioclase,H 
The quartz as a rule is not easily picked out by the eye, but it ' 
makes a good 'show under the microscope. According to Mr.' 
J. J. H. Teall the Cheviot granites present us with a ty'^p: 
previously unkiiown in Britain in that "ihisy' contain augite.* ' 

The granite is probably of essentially the same age as the^ 
Porphyrite Series. 'The feasOns' for 'thinkiiig' so are raatnljf 
derived from the adjoiniiig quarter sheet, 108 N.E. He're 'it 
appears clear that the granite is not only intrusive in porphyrftes>- 
butalsO that some of the coarse porphyrite dykes are intfusive 
in it. 

*It occupies. Only a small" area— ^scarcely a square mile— and if 
is not very ^ell seen either along the junctions or elsew'hetei.'. 
Owing to this, and the similarity of the shape of the ground i** 
forms'with that of the surrdtindTng porphyrites, the' boutidaryl is- 
v6Vy indefinite ; biit^ judging from the sections in Common Burri^. 
and still more from those in the adjoining quarter sheet, 108 N.E;^: 
it pi'obably forms such a jagged and irregular line with many arms 
and thin dykes branching out that it would be scarcely possible to 
delineate it accurately in any case. The largest area lies between 
Common Burn and Broadstruther's Burn (108 N.E.). Another, 
smaller, and apparently separate, area occurs in and on the banks 
of Common Burn, S.W. of Benty Crag. This is only a verjr 
little higher than that which occurs further down the burn, and is 
no doubt continuous therewith underground. The junction with 
the porphyrite in a sike that runs into the burn from the south is 
nearly a vertical line. 

Bed and orange lelstone dykes and strings are very common 
within the granite area, e.g., \ mile S. of Common Burn 
House. These often project with sharp-edged blocks out from 
the granite, because they do not disintegrate so readily on 
exposure, owing to the fineness of grain preventing, to a great 
extent, the entry of the decomposing agents. It was not found 
practicable to trace them, except in sections, and they have not 
been separated on the map from the granite. 

* Geol. Mag., 1885, p. 112. 


Intrusive Bocks other than Granite. 

1. Coarse Ked Mica Porphyrite. 

2. Felstone and Orthophyre. 

3. Quartz Porphyry. 

4. Dolerite. 

The first three are confined to tlie Lower Old Red area, and 
are probably all of essentially the same age as the series among 
which they occur, and closely connected with the granite. Owing 
to the similarity of appearance between the porphyrite dykes and 
X3ertain of the lava flows there are inevitably many cases where 
one is left in doubt from want of clear sections as to whether an 
exposure is part of a flow or of au intrusion.. On the N. side 
of the hills between Wooler and Kirknewton the red porphyrite 
is particularly common, but this very abundance tends to obscure 
the form of the individual outcrops, for the stones derived from, 
them are scattered in "glitters"* all down the hill sides, and it 
is hard to say which are nearly in place and which are not.. 
iBome of the exposures have, however, a clear dyke-like form,, 
especially when viewed at a little distance. It is also quite 
--possible that there are other intrusions in the form of knobs, &c. 
"On the N.W. side of Yeavering Bell there are dykes, which when 
viewed from the other side of the Glen appear like gigantic 
old fortifications. Other conspicuous examples occur on the N. 
side of Trough Burn, about ^ mile above its foot, on the N.W.. 
side of Coldsmouth Hill and on the W. side of Hare Law 
(College). In the last locality there are two, both very pro- 
minent. The lower part of the southerly one is broken up into- 
immense rudely prismatic blocks by joints which spring from the 
'sides, i.e., the surfaces of cooling. It averages 20 or 30 yards in 
width, and runs in a direction slightly N. of E., almost at right 
angles through some well-marked terrace features. In one place 
it makes a sharp bend in the way not unusual with basalt dykes.. 
On the Laddie's Knowe (Eisdon Burn) there is a quarry section 
showing another columnar jointed dyke going through purple 
porphyrite. The dyke contains an included fragment. 

C. T. C. 

There are two good sections in dykes of a similar character on the- 

N. side of the Glen. One of these occurs in a quarry on the N.. 

side of the road between Lanton and Lanton Mill. The dyke 

is flesh colour, with large felspar crystals and traces of mica. 

The rock is massive with cross-jointing, and is about 50' wide,. 

with sides of dull purple or light-brownish purple porphyrite. 

The dyke was doubtfully traced up the hill-side nearly to the 

I..auton Monument. Some distance to the westward of this 

there is perhaps another dyke of- the same character, but with. 

-~"^ y _ . 

* This = screes of the Lake Country. The covering of loose stones on the slope, 
or at the foot, of a steep hill. The term may be compared with Clatters or Clitteri. 
in Devon, and Glyders in North Wales. 

E 2 


more mica, running alongside a sike and in the same general 
direction, viz., N. and S. About l^^miles to the northward and 
^ mile S.E. from the farm of Kippie there appears to be a quarry- 
in another of these dykes, or in a continuation of one of the 
Lanton ones. The rock is reddish, massive, and cross-jointed, 
and the crystals of black njica are large, but the boundaries of 
the mass are not well defined. 

W. G. 

[Under the head of Intrusive Rocks there are included a few 
rocks which, in the field, do not give decisive evidence of their 
mode of origin, but which agree with some undoubted dykes in 
structure and corapoeition.] 

In the porphyrile area two types of rocks have been submitted 
to me, orthophyres or orthoclase felsites, and mica-porphyrites, 
which are, as a rule, a little more acid than the flows of pyroxene- 

Orthojihyre. — As an example of this class of rook we may take 
that from a little burn west of Lanton Monument (E. 2300). The 
ground-mass of this rock, although in ordinary light like that of 
the porphyrites and quite homogeneous, splits up when the nicola 
are crossed into areas alternately dark and light, each of which 
behaves as an individual in tint and angle of extinction. This 
structure has been described by Harker* in a felsitic rock from 
North Wales. There is a good deal of interstitial quartz in the 
ground, and much less magnetite than in the porphyrites, The 
larger felspar phenocrysts, although much decomposed, show twin 
striation, but the smaller and much more abundant felspars are of 
orthoclase felspar twinned on the carlsbad law ; crystals of biotite 
form the other porphyrilic ingredient. The rock is dull red in 
colour, and shows in a hand-specimen pale pink crystals of felspar 
and smaller crystals of black mica. 

Miea-porphyrite. — This rock appears generally to occur in the 
form of dykes, and this is certainly the case with that from the 
north side of Lanton Quarry (E. 2302). The ground-mass is, in 
some cases, almost holocrystalline, and it is always coarser than 
in the undoubted flows. It is made up of microliths of twinned 
felspar, quartz more or less interstitial, and long needles of brown 
mica. In one case (quarry in field west of Trigonometrical 
Station 706, Millfield, E. 2303) the matrix breaks up in ordinary 
light, into almost clear grains with dark margins set in brown 
interstitial matter, in which some quartz is visible ; the grains 
exhibit a rude radial structure under polarised light, and appear 
to be made up of felspar ; they are not, however, ordinary 

The phenocrysts are of felspar, exclusively plagioclase; some of 
the largest are as much as ^ inch in length. Biotite is plentiful, 
generally in very well formed hexagonal crystals. Sometimes 

* The Bala Volcanic Series of Caernarvonshire (Cambridge, 1889), pp. 22 and 23. 


there is no other ferromagnesian mineral, but, occasionally, 
replacements in serpentine or bastite, presumably after pyroxene, 
are recognisable. A little magnetite is often present, but not so 
much as in the lavas. Microscopically the rock is red in colour, 
with obvious crystals of plagioclase and biotite, and the general 
appearance of a microcrystalline rock. 

These rocks really stand between the andesites and the diorites, 
and rather correspond with the microgranites of the acid series in 
systematic position, Mr. Teall in the explanation of Sheet 5 
("Scotland), has suggested that the term porphyrite should be 
restricted to rocks of this type, and the word may well be 
employed here. Thus the rocks would be biotile-purphyrites. 

w. w. w. 

On examining the junction sections there often seems at first 
sight a gradual passage from the dykes into the surrounding 
lavas, which are generally more purple in colour. This is 
because they have a way of changing their character near the 
margins, the larger felspars and the micas becoming gradually 
rarer and the felstone matrix darker. Sometimes the finer strings 
become quite blaclf. In Common Burn, about ^ mile above its 
junction with Broadstruther's Burn, there is such a string, about 
2" thick, going through rather coarse purple red porphyrite. 
Tlie sides are finer than the interior of the string, and most of 
the felspar crystals have their longer axes parallel to its general 

Fig. 5. — Coarse red Porphyrite, intrusuie in black and purple 
Porphyrite, Hart Heugh, Wooler. 

On the Harthengh (Wooler) the junctions are sometimes 
particularly clear and interesting. In one case 130 yards 
slightly E. of S. of the Ordnance station, 1049-5, coarse re^l 
porphyrite, though not clearly of a dyke siiape, cuts through the 
bands of a devitrified "pitchstone porphyrite." The line of 
junction weathers in a slight hollow. 

In the adjoining quarter sheet, 108 N.E., it might be said that 
the dykes have as a rule directions pointing rudely to the granitic 
mass. In this sheet this is not so noticeable, though still one cannot 
but be struck with the fact that the best-marked dykes on the N. 
side of the hills run roughly N. and S., while those on the Hart 
Heugh are more E. and W. 


A fine red felstone dyke occurs on the S.E. of Great Hetha, 
and another, or possibly a continuation of the same in the E. bank. 
of the College, ^ mile S.S.E. of Whitehall. They occasionally 
contain distinct quartz specks, but these are not sufficiently large 
or numerous to entitle the rock to the name of quartz porphyry. 
There is a considerable exposure of felstone in Carey Burn, about 
;i mile below the foot of Bioadstruther's Burn, but the character 
of the junctions is not satisfactory. A little less than ^ mile E, 
of Torleehouse, Kirknewton, there is an exposure of rock for 
which tlie best name is, perhaps, quartz porphyry. It resembles 
the coarse red porphyrite with the addition of prominent well- 
crystallized quartz pyramids. About half a mile S.S.E. of 
Heathpool Linn there is a smaller and less well-defined exposure 
>of a similar rock. 

In addition to the rocks marked as intrusive on the map, there 
are many others which are not improbably so, though decisive 
evidence is lacking. Among these we may mention porphyrite, 
near the head of Old Yeavering Burn, in the head of Akeld Burn, 
i mile S.E. of Tom Tallon's Crag, on the S.E. slope of Loft Hill 
(College), and in various places on the N. side of Wester Tor ; 
felstone, ^ mile W.N.W. of Heathpool, and in the sike N.W. of 
<Common Burn House. C. T, C. 

Dolerite dykes. — There are two dykes of dolerite within the area 
of the map, which are confined to the Carboniferous rocks. One 
■of these has been found at various places along a course of nearly 
seven miles, with a general E.N.E. direction, ranging from the 
banks of the Tweed, north of Cornhill, to beyond Duddo and 
Mattilees. It is sometimes called the Cornhill Dyke and sometimes 
the Mattilees Dyke. At the latter place it has been most ex- 
tensively quarried, one of the quarries there along the course of 
'the dyke being more than half a mile long, in a nearly straight 
line. The dyke cannot be traced further to the east than a quarry 
on the south side of Haiden Dean, near a point where three roads 
■meet, to the W.N.W. of Bowsden Moor. This is where the N. 
■dip of 3° is given on the map. In this quarry the dyke is 7 yards 
wide, and there are the usual signs of alteration in the beds at the 
side of the dyke, a coal, 6 inches thick, being turned into coke. 
The same thing is seen in the long quarry to the west — the 
Fawcet coal, 2 feet thick, being converted into coke where it 
comes in contact with the dyke, about half-way between the Dean 
and the road that goes past the tile works. In places, along the 
course of the dyke, we see that, though the sides are generally 
vertical, there are irregularities, the whin in places overlying shale 
and sandstone, and in others we see patches of these caught up in 
■the whin, which is as much as 11 yards wide in places. Near the 
-west end of the long quarry, where the road enters it, we find the 
•dyke divides into two ; the part in a line with the quarry to the 
•east seems to end in about 50 yards, for there the quarrying stops. 
The southern branch has been followed westward about 200 yards 
and at the end of the working the whin appears not to come to 


the surface of the ground, being covered by a considerable thickness 
of sardstone and shale as follows : — ■ 

Eather shattered sandstone, 6 to 7 feet. 
• Several'feet apparently of shale below, with a thin coal, but not well 

In consequence of this the.dyJke has not been coloufed for a 
little distance to the west, till it is seen again in a quarry close 
to the house at Mattilees. West of Duddo it has been quarried iu 
a, very winding course, bendirg almost at right angles. Between 
this and the banks of the Till it is not seen at the surface, but it 
has been found- in draining near. Tiptoe, and also half a mile to 
the eastward. It has been quarried on both sides .of tiie Till, and 
just where it crosses the river there is a bend in the dyke, yor 
change in its direction. On the west side there is a fine section 
in the dyke near Old Heaton, where it is fine-grained, and stands 
up like an old wall. Its width is 9 yards, and the shales and 
sandstones at the sides are a good deal altered. Between this and 
Melkington the dyke is not seen, owing to thick deposits of 
Bpulder Clay. It was bored for in about 27 places half a mile 
east of Melkington, but not found, the trials proving no rock, 
• and only going 12-15 ft. in the Boulder Clay. The basalt is 

7 yards wide where it crosses the railway, and to the east of this 
is a long quarry in it, cutting through grey and blue shale resting 
on fine grey and white sandstone nearly horizontal. 

West of the railway the dyke is covered hy drift and is not seen 
'again except in the Tweed. It would seem to be dying out, as it 
is only 3 ft. 6 in. to 4 ft. wide at the river's edge, where it is coarse- 
grained and whitish on the outside. It, however, widens out to 

8 ft. 6 in. higher up the bank, but in the middle of the scar it seems 
not to come to the surface, being overlain by shale and sandstone, 
^s at the west end of Mattilees Quarry, 


A specimen from this dyke, at Castle Heaton, has been 
■submitted to microscopic c^xamination. It is a dark doleritic rock 
with a few porphyritic crystals of felspar. ^Microscopic examina- 
tion proves it to be a hypersthene-dolerite. The bulk of the rock 
is made up of laths of plagioclase felspar, set amongst grains of 
augite and plates of magnetite. The structtire is not truly ophitic, 
although the felspar has sometimes impressed its shape on the 
augite. Felspar has been the first mineral to solidify. The 
augite is of a warm brown tint, but pale, and only slightly 
pleochroic ; the crystals are often twinned in the usual way. 
The hypersthene does not differ from that already described in 
the porphyrites, but is only present in small quantity. The 
interstitial matter is a plexus of chlorite, calcite, and quartz 
occurring in the interspaces of the felspathic network. The 
■structure is that of the rocks termed tholeites by Rosenbusoh. 
A few examples of zoned and twinned plagioclase phenocrysts are 


to be seen in the slide. In part of its course, or possibly at its 
edges, opposite Lennel, near Coldstream (E. 1367), this dyl<e passes 
into a fine-lgrained, porphyritic, basalt. 

W. W. W. 

The other dolerite dyke has the same general direction as the 
Mattilees dyke, viz., about E.N.E., but is rather more bending. 
It has been traced within this sheet from Hazely Hill to the edge 
of the sheet near Bowsden, a distance of about 2^ miles, and is 
commonly known as the Bowsden Dyke. It is generally about 
6 yards wide, where it has been almost continuously quarried for 
a distance of half a mile west of High Wood. It has not been 
seen at the surface west of the Hazely Hill quarries, though it 
was found in the coal-workings on Etal Moor, near the Quarry 
House, and it probably dies out to the westward. At Hazely 
Hill there is a change in the direction or position of the dyke like 
this — 

The dyke ends off and begins again on a parallel course to 
the last, at a distance of 10 yards or so. It is not thought that- 
this is at all due to a shift or fault, as the same kind of thing 
occurs elsewhere, and is certainly due to irregularity in the original 

All through the High Wood there is little trace of the dyke, 
but there is an old quarry, 250 ft. long, full of water, to the S. of 
Ooalharbour. The rock sticks up in the fields S. of Woodside, 
and S.E. from the house there appears another break in the dyke, 
where there is a change in the direction. There is a good section 
of it in Bowsden Quarry, to the S.W. of the village, and it crops 
up again in the fields to the E. In the quarry the dyke seems 
to coincide with a fault which shifts the beds about 100 ft. further 
to the W. on the south side. 

W. G. 


Faults and Veins. 

Many of the large and important faults have a general east 
and west direction, or nearly parallel to that^of the dolerite dykes. 
The three boundary faults between the Carboniferous Eocks and 
the Porpby rites all throw down on the north, and the evidence 
for them has been given elsewhere. It is impossible in either 
case to give the amount of throw, as the formations are not con- 
formable. The one of these which passes south of Branxton 
may be a continuation of the Ford Moss fault, together -with 
others at Ford. The faults best known are naturally those 
which cross the outcrops of the coal seams. Some of these are 
very large, but the exact amount of tlirow has not been proved. 
We will begin witli those near the north edge of the area, about 
Felkington. The Felkington Jaiclt which passes along the N. sid'^- 
of the village, has a throw down S. of 32 ft. which westward 
diminishes to 2 ft. Eastward it increases fast, and was proved to 
be at least 87 ft. The next fault throws down N. 42 ft,, and there 
are said to be others not recorded. 

The Haiden Dean Fault, which passes to the N. of Greenlawalls 
Colliery, is large and of a rare kind, for there is pretty good 
evidence that it changes its throw. To the west of the colliery 
it has a large throw down to the S., said to be 20 fathoms, but 
the amount has not been proved, while some distance to the east- 
ward it has certainly a large throw down to the north, probably 
as much as 400 or 500 feet, for the Oxford Limestone on one 
side is nearly opposed to the Woodend Limestone on the other. 
The throw must be nil about opposite the west end of the bog at 
Greenlawalls Colliery. The beds on the S. side of the fault are 
dipping eastward at a low angle, while those on the N. side are 
highly inclined. 

The Duddo Fault. — There seems to be a good-sized fault at 
Duddo, throwing down south, and nearly coinciding for a little 
distance with the position of the whin dyke. It however crosses 
the whin dyke, which is clearly not a fault itself, as may be seen 
in the quarries. The notion that the whin dykes throw the coa! 
seams is a prevalent one among miners, but it does not seem to 
rest on good grounds, for generally the workings stop at a dyke 
of this kind, and no attempt is made to prove if there is any 
throw. Of course the coal is generally charred for some distance 
from the dyke and rendered useless. The throw of the Duddo 
faidt would seem to be from 150 to 200 feet, for it shifts the out- 
crop of the Cooper Eye Coal about ^ mile to the west. This fault 
is In a line with the one at Lickar Moor, and may be continuous 
with it, but nothing is known of the intermediate ground. 

*68 FAULTS. 

The Longheugh Fault. — Perhaps the largest fault of all Is the 
•one which passes N. of Etal Colliery and S. of Woodend, and 
which has been named the Longheugh Dyke by Mr. Boyd. 
Its effect between Etal Colliery and Longheugh is to throw 
down on the S. the Woodend Ljimestooe some distance beyond 
the outcrop of the lowest coal seams, so that its throw here 
must be at least 600 or 700 feet. A, branch of it apparently 
cuts off the crag of Longheugh and throws down the coals a 
'few yards to the south ; but the main fault goes easterly, and 
must pass to the south of the Woodend Quarry, though the 
throw seems lessening eastward, where it passes to the north of 
the Coalharbour Quarries, if it is not even reversed in throw. 
'Its further course in this direction is obscure, and it may be 
"that it splits into two, as represented on the map, for there is 
■clear evidence that two large faults throwing down S. exist to 
the eastward near Bowsden and a mile or so to the northward. 
But it is clear that the small fault coinciding with the whin 
dyke in Bowsden Quarry cannot be the large fault which repeats 
the Lowick limestones to the south. West of Longheugh the 
fault seems to bend and cut off the E. end of Berryliill Crag, 
and. there is some sign of faulting N. of Eta! Mill, which may 
be due to this or to the fault next to be described. 

Slainsfield Fault. — The fault drawn on the mining plan, which 
•cuts off the coal just north of the houses, does not appear to be 
a large one, for it does not seem to show in the sandstone crag 
to the westward or to shift the ooal crops. But there is an 
undoubted large fault between the village, where a pit was sunk 
30 fathoms to the Cooper Eye, and the outcrop of the same 
coal on Etal Moor, more than a quarter of a mile to the E.N.E., 
and I think this passes north of Slains Wood and by the N. end 
of the sandstone crag which is on the west of the village, near 
which in a small stream the beds are dipping steeply to the N.E., 
and a coal, probably the Main Coal, is seen. Mr. Boyd gives the 
throw of the Slainsfield Fault as 70 fathoms ; but it would seem 
to be larger, probably as much as 500 to 600 feet down to the 
south. It cannot be traced to the westward. To the eastward it 
seems to decrease, passing near Watohlaw and Winterburn. To 
the north of Whitelee it repeats the Oxford Limestone, but the 
main part of the throw is probably taken by the branch which 
goes off to the N.E., and is apparently the large fault which in 
1;he adjoining area passes by Dryburn Colliery and throws down the 
Lickar Coals and the four principal limestones at Lowick. 

A fault S.E. of Slainsfield, which throws down 18 ft. on the N.E., 
was ascertained from the mining plan. 

About Ford the ground is much faulted and disturbed, but few 
of the faults are known, though many are said to have been met 
witli in the old coal- workings on the Common. The only faults I 
had any certain information about were met with by Mr. Neale, 
of Ford, in pits sunk to the Cooper Eye seam N.W. of the main 
road. He found no less than three faults running about E.N.E., 
within a distance of 75 yards, and all throwing down on the N. 


Only one of these was cut through, and It had a throw of 12 ft. 
The main features of the disturbances about Ford seem to bs 
that there are two large faults both throwing the beds up to the 
south. One of these appears to run about N.N.E. from the village 
of Ford, in a synclinal, and it throws up the coals from their run 
down in Kelso Dean to the Common, while another fault or 
faults S. of the Common and about Fordhill throws the coals up 
close to Blaokohester Hill. At least, this is the general effect ; 
the structure is probably much more complicated in both cases. 
These two faults may be called the Ford Fault and the Blach- 
'chester Hill Fault, North of the hill the throw of the latter 
fault must be Idi'ge — several hundred feet — as it apparently 
brings the Watchlaw Limestone against the Main Coal, which 
would be some 600 or 700 feet. 

Two faults running about N.W. were met with in the workings 
of Ford Moss Colliery. One of these throws down 9 ft. to the cast, 
the other, which passes under the moss, also throws down to the E. 
42ft. in the Main Coal and only 20 feetint he Blackhill Seam which 
is several fathoms above. 

Ford Moss Fault. — Next comes the large fault running nearly 
E. and W. which occurs to the south of the Moss, and, like the other 
large faults, it throws up on the south. This does not seem to 
have been previously noticed. There is, however, no outcrop of 
any of the coals on the S. side of the Moss ; they have been 
worked underground from the N. side, and the workings in the 
Main Coal end along a line just outside the limits of the Moss, 
where the coal was cut off by a mass of 'sandstone which covers 
the moor to the south and which may be seen on the S. side of 
the row of houses, dipping steeply to the north. This is a mass 
of the Fell Sandstones brought up against all the coals by a fault, 
the throw of which is not exactly known, but must be more than 
200 ft., and may be much more. To the eastward, in a line with 
this fault is one S. of Doddington Moor Colliery, throwing down 
the reverse way, or to the south. The reversal of the throw may 
be due to the probable large N.N.E, fault which goes along near 
the E. side of the Moss, and which apparently throws up on the 
E. to a lai'ge amount. For there seems no outcrop of the coals 
in the Moss, and on the east side near the outlet a borino- is said 
to have gone down 70 fathoms without finding coal, being below 
all the seams. The throw of the Doddington Moor Fault must 
be considerable, as the beds below the main coal are on the north 
side, while on the south side we have again not only the main 
coal but the Blackhill Seam and a thickness of the beds above, 
all dipping somewhat steeply N. for a breadth of about 250 yards, 
so the throw is probably 150 ft. or more. The fault which cuts 
these coals oflf on the W. side of the Burn must be quite as lar.Tp, 
and it is apparently continuous with that which truncates tlie 
escarpments of the Fell Sandstones east of Fenton Hill. 

W. G. 

70 VEINS. 

Veins. — There are strings of calcite about half a mile above the 
foot of Whitehall Burn, running apparently a little west of 

In Common Burn, about a mile above its junction with Broad- 
struther's Burn, is a strong vein-breccia with vertical slickensides, 
and calcite strings stained with haematite. The direction is a 
little S. of E. 

[For notice of other veins in the porphyrites of Flodden Quarry 
and near Mindrum Mill School, see the general account of the 
Porphyrites. There is also one noticed in the description of the 
Kelso Traps.] 

0. T. C. and W. G. 



Glacial Deposits. 

These almost completely cover the strip of country immediately 
south of the Tweed, averaging about three miles in hreadth, and 
they hide large portions of the rocks in the rest of the area with 
the exception of the country south of the Bowmont and Glen 
where they are confined principally to the valleys. Boulder day, 
varying in colour from bluish to reddish, but generally the latter, 
and also varying much in texture, is the most widely distributed ; 
while sand and gravel are found in detached patches mostly, 
except in the district south and east of Cornhill where they 
spread out over a large moundy area with numerous peat bogs in 
the hollows. It will be convenient to describe separately the 
drift over the Carboniferous and Porphyrite areas. 

Drift over the Carboniferous Area, 

The Boulder Clay or Till. — One of the characteristics of the 
till in this area is that where it attains a great thickness it is often 
disposed in the form of parallel ridges or drumlins, the size and 
importance of which are to a great extent shown by the shading on 
the 1-inch map, but this does not represent them so clearly as 
they appear on the ground. There are two great sets of these 
drumlins separated by the mass of sand and gravel S. of Cornhill. 
In the western lot the longest line of the drumlins is directed 
between N.E. and E.N.E., while in the eastern set the direction 
is between E.N.E. and E. Probably in each case these directions 
coincide with those of the glacial striae on the rock (which are 
rarely exposed), and they show the direction of the ioe-sheet which 
came down the Tweed Valley. We will mention a few of the 
moi'e prominent of these drumlins. The highest above the sur- 
rounding ground is Blake Law, 1^ miles south of Cornhill, which 
rises 130 ft. above the ground on the N. side and nearly 100 ft. above 
that on the south. North of Cornhill the hill marked A 231 rises 
nearly 100 ft. above the surrounding ground. Between Melkington 
and 5few Heaton the hill A 305 rises more than 100 ft. on N. side, 
and Fadden Hill, N. of Tiptoe (on the E, side of the Till), is from 
70 to 110 ft. above the ground on either side. These, however, 
are not the longest ridges though the highest. There is one S.E. 
of Riffington, near the N. edge of the map, which is a mile in 
length, and there are some long ones S.W. of Presson, which have 
streams in the hollows between them. These conspicuous drum- 
lins are absent or very rare over the coal and limestone districts 
in the N.E. part of the area, where the drift is comparatively thin. 
If the ridges before-mentioned are entirely composed of glacial 
drift (boulder clay), which seems probable, it follows that the 


drift in several places is over 100 ft. in thickness. And this view- 
is borne out by a boring which was made about 250 yards S.S.E. 
of Warls East Common. Asinlcing was first made 40 ft. deep, and* 
then a boring 62 ft. deepei', or 102 ft. altogether, all in solid clay 
with few stones, and this not on a drumlin, but nearly in the 
hollow between two of them. A well at the house last-mentioned 
is in sandy clay 24 ft. deep. But tliere are few places where a 
great thickness of boulder clay can be seen in section, except 
along the railway and in the banks of the burns near Presson^ 
The deepest railivay-cuttings in it are at St. Cuthbert's, near the 
mouth of the Till, and on the W. side near the Scottish border, 
between Sunnylaws and Shidlaw Tile Works. In the latter place 
it must be 30 to 40 ft. thick at least, with a seam of sand in it, 
but the old railway-sections are mostly obscured now. West of 
the point, Avhere the whin dyke crosses the railway N. of Cornhill, 
the clay was proved to be 25 ft. thickj and it was proved to be 
at lea;8t 12 to 15 ft. thick by borings made to find the whin dyke 
E. of Melkington. 

Eeddish clay, somewhat loamy or sandy, seems to prevail all 
over the low ground adjoining the Scottish border, and boulders 
do not seem very abundant. The ridges or druVnlins seem more 
stony sometimes than the intervening hollows, but this may 
partly be due to the clay of them being more denuded by rain, 
leaving the stones behind on the surface. The clay gives a red 
tinge to the newly ploughed fields, and it may be seen in the 
'batiks of several streams about Presson and to the S. and S.W. 
of it ;' also' in the burn N.E. of Wark West Common, The com- 
monest erratics are those of Silurian grit or grauwacke, which are 
almost always well-rounded. The clay N. and E. of New Heaton 
is tougher, stronger, and apparently blue, but red clay is seen S. 
of East Melkingtoii, and the clay is generally' of a red colour W. 
of the Till. About St, Cnthbert's it ig loamy or snndy and 
gravelly in places. 

' East of the Till the clay seems nowhere very thick except in 
the ridges or drumlins, which lie mostly west of a line from 

"Tiptoe by Grindon Ridge to Sandy "Bank. To the east of this. 
line the following thibknesses of clay have been proved. 'Eed. 
clay to 10 ft. deep was cut near the W". end of the lOad inside the 
ground of Ford Castle. Stony Clay is 10 ft. deep in some parts of 
the giudeii of the same. In coal pits at Gatherick 9 ft. of -clay,. 
Bar moor Ridge Pit 8 or 9 ft. clay, and Greenlawalls 6 ft.* O rer a 

'■^oodd^al of the coal and limestone districts the clay is sothin and 

'fatchy, with rock crapping out in places, that any lines drawn 
separating drifty from driftless areas must be very arbitrary. It 

"itoust therefore be understood that a good deal of the colouring on 
this part of the drift-map cannot be exact. There is a good 

"Section in genuine till at the whinstone-quarry, near the E. end 
of the Mattilees Dyke, and red boulder clay is seen above the 

* In a sinking and boring to the Blackhill seam, 150 feet deep, about 200 yards 
N, of Ford Moss, lied Clay was found to a depth of 24 feet. 


sandstone-quarry at Khodes. Over the district round Ford and; 
Etal, and to the N. and E. of Ford Moss, near Barmoor Ridge 
and Barmoor Southmoor, porphyrite boulders from the Flodden 
Hills are abundant, mingled with the grauwacke, nearly every- 
where present, quartz-rock, &c. But in the drift N. of Berryhill' 
there are few or no porphyrite boulders, though grauwacke,. 
quartz, &c. are plentiful, and these far-travelled erratics are all 
well-rounded as usual. A few porphyrite boulders were noticed 
east of Fadden Hill, but generally over the ground where the drift 
is thin boulders are not very numerous. The boulder clay has- 
Ifeen used for tile-making at Shidlaw Tile Works and Duddo- 
Tile Works, and there are old clay-pits in Brick-kiln Plantation 
west of Grindon Eidge. At Duddo Tile Works the clay is tliin; 
and patchy, rock being in place's near the surface. 

Glacial Strice on Rock Surfaces. — These are few indeed within 
this area. None have been observed on the Porphyrites— 
pirobably owing to the fact that these rocks are so readily decom- 
posed at the surface by sub-aerial agencies. The carboniferous 
sandstones also are generally soft and not well-fitted to preserve 
striae. I can only mention one place where striated rock uu-- 
doubtedly exists. This is W. of Blackhill, Ford Moss, on the W.. 
side of the road, and near the stream which runs down by Ford 
Hill. The striae run E. and W. on massive white sandstone, 
which dips to the north. Probably a good many exist on the 
limestones, where they are covered by till ; but in all the old 
quarries the original surface of the limiestone has been entirely 
removed, and the quarries carried back to a great depth under a. 
thick covering of shale. 

Sand and Gravel. — The patches of this drift occur; ing in the 
Bowmont Valley are described in the general account of the 
drift over the porphyrite area. There is a strip of gravel S. of 
Milfield about Sandy House, flattish-topped and narrow, which' 
may have some connexion with the old lake. There is also »• 
great spread of sand and gravel on the other side of the plain in 
the low ground about Fenton Mill and N. and E. of Nesbit. 
This is all below the 200ft. contour, and may not be glacirii at all,, 
but part of the old lake deposit, as it is not of the usual moundy. 
character. Or it may be old drift sand somewhat re-arranged by 
the old lake-waters.' Two patches of what appears to be sand 
forming higher ground than the old alluvium round them, occur 
■K.E. of Milfield, and these may be something of the same kind.. 
It must be understood that the glacial origin of these is doubtful. 
•South of Wooler the sand and gravel is disposed in the form of 
longish mounds or short ridges running N.N. W. or N.W. These, 
however, are mostly in the adjacent area to the E., where a mixture 
of dirty gravel and loaniy chty is seen below the sand and gravel 
in the banks of Wooler Water S. of Bridge End, and where the 
- drift must be upwards of 150 ft. thick. 

The patches about St. Outhbert's and S. and E. of Eiffingtdn, , 
besides many small ones in various parts of the area among the 
clay, call for no particular notice. We go on to describe the- 


main mass, which lies to the S. of Cornliill, and occupies most of 
the lowest ground of the area with the exception of the alluvial 
spread of Milfield Plain. The greater portion bf it is between 
100 and 200 ft. above the sea, little of it rising above 200, except 
a strip in the S. along the N. edge of the porphyrite boundary, 
and another strip which connects it by Mindrummill with the 
' gravel of the Bowmont Valley. 

The surface is generally undulating or moundy in places, 
especially so, e.g., S.E. of English Struther Bog, where many 
small banks or ridges of coarse gravel run in various directions, 
dividing and uniting again in a very irregular manner. Only in a 
few places do we find marked isolated ridges having any general 
resemblance to true kaims. N. of Blakelaw is a straight ridge 
some 400 or 500 yards long, composed of sharp gravel. It luns 
in the direction of the adjoining drumlins. Immediately S. of 
English Struther Bog is a steep ridge of sand and gravel called 
Broomy Knowe, 250 yards long and curved in outline. At 
Pallinsburn, east of the pond and by the side of the road, is a low 
ridge known as " The Kaim Knowe" in which is a gravel pit. 
The gravel is welL rounded, rather dirty looking, some of it very 
coarse ; and it contains irregular patches of dirty sand and clay. 
The kaim at Wark, which is a detached and separate mass, we 
will describe further on. 

It is not easy to distinguish areas where sand prevails at the 
surface from those where gravel mostly occurs, but it seems to be 
mostly sand south of Orookham from Mount Pleasant, round 
to Mardon, and perhaps to beyond Branxton. At Mardcm there 
is a pit in which coarse sand and fine gravel overlie stiSish 
sand, which is 10 or 12 ft. thick and dipping with the slope of 
the hill. At Piper's Hill, S.W. of Branxton Church, there is 
coarse gravel and sand on the surface and a great depth of sand 
below which has been dug out for building-purposes. The 
higher ground N. of and near East Moneylaws, going up to 340 
feet, is of a somewhat different character apparently, as the gravel 
seems unlike that in the lower ground, being less rotmded and not 
so clean. Sand, however, has been dug for building-purposes in 
more than one place near East Moneylawb. S. of East Learmouth, 
at Cleghorne Knowe, a pit lias been opened close to the road in a 
mound of sand and gravel — brown sand alternating with fine 
gravel in beds v/hich have a dip to the N.E. of about 20°. 
Near Cornhill sand seems to prevail in places, but not exclusively. 
There is a deep cutting in sand in the older railway N. of. 
Campfield, where also a N.E, dip of about 20° exists in the layers 
of light-brown sand and fine gravel. To the south of this, gravel 
veas dug for ballast by the side of the railway to a depth of 20 ft., 
and as mentioned by Mr. Mearns (Proc. Ber. Nat. Club, vol. v., 
p. 224), a mound called the Whale Knows in the field acljoining, 
was removed by iiie Kailway Company, and here a few feet of 
sand were dug out below the gravel. The layers of sand and 
gravel are described as being twisted or contorted as if formed by 
an eddy. The best sections, however, were to be seen during 


th e making of the new line of railway from CornhiU to Alnwick 
in the year 1884. Starting from the junction near Cornhili, the 
first cutting N. of Oampfield showed fine light-brown well-bedded 
sand, 20 ft. or so, capped by 3 to 6 ft. of dirty sandy loam mixed with 
dirty gravel in places. Further south, close to Oampfield Bog, the 
following section was'seen : — 

Fi(t. 6. — Section in Railway, South oj CornhiU, 

2 : 
■i '. 

* J 





Sandy loaili. 


Coarse gravel. 
Seam of clay, 

1 foot. 

The sketch is a good example of the irregular bedding that so 
often occurs. Gravel which has a very uneven surface forms the 
lower part of the section, and on this rests a sandy loam which 
dips down into the hollows of the gravel, and in one part over 
the largest of these, it encloses a lenticular bed of clay 1 ft. thick, 
evidently from its shape deposited in a basin like the loam below 
it. Above all and over the same place is a bed of coarse gravel 
dirty above. Thus we see that the original hollow in the gravel 
at the bottom gave form to the subsequent deposits at the same 

Again, in the cutting between this aftd English Struther Bog, 
at the north end, we find — 

Dirty gravel, 10 feet or so, dipping 35° to W. 
Stiff sand, 1 foot or more, over 
Sand and fine gravel. 

And further on — 

Brown dirty gravel and loam, very irregular, over 
Reddish, sand and fine gravel. 

South of English Struther Bog (generally called Learmouth 
Bog) there was at the north end of the first cutting principally 
sand 20 to 25 ft. irregularly bedded, with some gravel,' and at the 
iJ. end gravel. A little south of the road beyond Learmouth is a 
trace of clay whicff seems to overlie sand, and about 600 or 700' 
yards further S., after crossing a little burn, a similar thing again 
occiirs, b'ut these are exceptional. Much of the graitel in the 
fields S. of this is composed of subangular porphyrite fragments. 
In the cutting west of The Hagg were g6od sections of stratified 
sand and fine gravel to the depth of 20 oi 25 ft. At the N. end 
gravel was seen overlying the sand, and dipiping N. 20°-25°j 
From the number of cases mentioned in which the' sand and 
gravel beds are highly inclined it will be inferred that they must 
have been deposited on veiy steep slopes, and probably in rather 

e 88198 F 


a tumultuous manner, as their irregularity would indicate. Strong 
springs issue from near tlie base of the gravel and sand west of 
Comhill in Bathingwell Plantation, and below Coldstream Bridge 
in the S. bank of the Tweed a band of the gravel has become 
consolidated into a conglomerate. West of Oarham, by the side 
of the road, occiirs a patch of gravel in which is a pit yielding the 
fallowing section : — 

A kind of clay composed of partly broken up chocolate and green 
shale, containing angular. and rounded boulders. This rests on 
dirty stratified gravel, about 10 feet, with some thin sandy 

Probably there is more gravel below ; the section is a good deal 
obscnred by ilebris. Professor J. Geikie considers these beds to 
be Interglacial. 

The western boundary of the main mass of sand and gravel 
which lies S. of Comhill is not always well-defined ; but it seems 
almost everywhere to occupy lower ground than does the boulder 
clay adjacent. Blake Law rises like an island of clay above the 
general level of the billowy sea of gravel. The eastern boundary 
E. of Cornhill, is a very marked one, as the boulder clay bank on 
whic^i stand Cramondhill and Marldown, rises more than 100 feet 
above the level of the adjacent sand and gravel. Probably the 
clay everywhere along this rising ground masks a bank of solid 
rock, for it is near the surface west of Cramond Hill, and there 
is a quarry in sandstone N. of Pallinsburn Dairy Farm. This 
bank was probably the old boundary of the valley of the Till, as 
mentioned elsewhere, and the sand and gravel of the Glacial 
period seem mainly to have filled and choked up this old valley. 
There is no section which shows the relation of the Till or 
boulder clay to the sand and gravel ; but, though the clay generally 
occupies the higher ground, compared to the gravel, I have no 
doubt that the latter is the newer deposit. 

I'he Kaim at Wark. 

The total length of this isolated mass of gravel and sand is 
1,400 yards. The width of the ridge to which the word kaim 
strictly applies, varies at the baso from 70 to 250 feet, being 
narrowest towards the W. end and widest at the Castle, which 
stands on it 400 yanJs from its eastern end. Its direction is nearly 
E. and W., but it is nol quite straight, having an undulating outline. 
TbC' height of it is not so easily given, it varies much, and the 
ground slopes away from it on both sides. But keeping to the 
width mentioned above we shall find that the height is about 30 ft. 
in the village near the E. end, and from 10 to 25 ft. towards the 
W. end. At the Castle it is higher, and the Ordnance Station is 
63 ft. above the base, but part of this height is due to the made 
ground and crumbling ruins on which the station was fixed. 
There are some marked depressions in it, one in particular about 
the middle of it, called Gilly's Nick, through which runs a road. 


From the indications of pits, &c. it seems to be composed of coarse 
grave], part well rounded ; but Mr. Mearns, in an able paper on 
it in the Transactions of the Berwickshire Naturalists Club, 
vol. V,, p. 224, mentions that a thick layer of sharp sand was 
found in it at the schoolroom in the village. He also (writin;? in 
1865) speaks of the gravel-pit between the Castle and Gilly's 
Nick as affording an excellent section, which he describes in 
detail. I therefore am indebted to him for the following account 
of this pit, 80 ft. wide and 24 ft. deep, which was opened on the 
S. side of the kaim. "" The soil is 3' in depth, and under it is 
1' of small gravel, of a whitish appearance, evidently argillo- 
calcareous, with angular blocks of chert limestone, too large to be 
enclosed, and therefore projecting above it. Beneath this is 1' of 
, small gravel, and under it 1' 4" of arenaceous clay, extending 60 
in length, in which I observed a well-rounded boulder of dark 
porphyry 2' 3" in girth .... The next layer consists of 
3' of larger stones, both square and rounded, amid which are small 
and short strata of sandy gravel. In the upper part of this large 
stratum I observed a well-rounded because far-travelled boulder 
of conglomerate, and close beside it a square block of sandstone 
from the neighbourhood. In the centre were clusters of the size 
and shape of cocoa-nuts, and some of the size of the human head. 
Beneath these stones was a layer of pure, sharp sand, about 6" in 
depth." Mr. Mearns mentions that among the boulders are 
greenstone, basalt, greywacke, conglomerates, porphyry, quartz, 
&c. Two boulders of cherty limestone in the bottom of the pit 
measured respectively 2' 10" x 2' 1" x 1' and 2' 3" x 2' x 1'. 
He infers that the ridge owes its present shape to the way in 
which it was originally deposited, because the strata at the bottom 
of the gravel-piu are seen to dip towards the south from the very 
centre of the ridge. No doubt this is in the main true, yet 
subsequent denudation has probably somewhat altered the shape 
and size, as there is little doubt that at some former period the 
Tweed ran on the S. side of it, there being a continuous hollow 
connecting the old river-terraces of Oarham Hall with those 
east of Wark. 

W. G. 

The drift over the porpliyrite area varies from tough Boulder 
Clay to well-rounded gravel or sand. Between these extremes 
are many shades concerning the proper name for which there 
would probably not be general agreement. It is also not unusual 
to find bands of several different varieties in the same section or 
cropping up in the same field, so that it is scarcely possible to 
delineate them correctly The sand and gravel, however, are 
pretty generally confined to the low ground. 

The hiQ-drif t over the porphyrite ' districts is often of a loose 
character near the surface, though it may be decidedly clayey 
below. The upper part is composed of a mass of subangular 
stones from which the clay has been washed out, but it is very 
different from the well-rounded gravel that occurs in mounds 

F 2 


in the valleys. When derived entirely from a porphyria 
district the drift which represents the boulder clay of other areas 
consists of an irregular assemblage of angular and subangular 
(pieces of porphyrite embedded in a matrix which contains a 
variable and often considerable proportion of porphyritic sand 
and gravel as well as clay. It does not, of course, follow that the 
deposit resting on porphyrite is of such a kind always. Often it 
is clearly far-travelled, and derived in the main from a Silurian 
or Carboniferous area. In Elsdon Burn, College Water, it 
consists of a stiff chocolate clay with bould^s of porphyrite, well- 
rounded hard green, probably Silurian sandstone, basalt. Carboni- 
ferous sandstone, vein quartz, and purple and yellow quartzites ; 
■ and it has clearly-come, over from tlie West country by the head 
of Tuppie's Sike, a height of over 900 feet. Most of the boulders 
^are well striated, but not the porphyrite. .The boulders of this 
rock in the drift are scarcely ever well rounded, unless they are 
of the finer-grained varieties, and striations are seldom found on 
them. Indeed, striated stones are not at all numerous in the 
■Cheviot drift, and striations on the solid rock are extremely rare. 

So many boulders of yellow freestone are found on the north 
slopes of . Akeld Hill and White Law, east of Yeavering Bell, 
that it is suggested there may be, or have lately been, a small 
outlipr cf Carboniferous rocks here, perhaps .preserved along 
the hade of the boundary fiiult. Mr. G. Tate (Proc. Ber. 
Nat. Clnb, vol. v., p. 365, 1867) considers some of the rocks as 
-certainly in place, but we could not see that they were, and think 
"them ijiore probably drifted. They are generally rounded and 
associated with some small well-rounded pebbles of some harder 
sandgtone, apparently Silurian. The smaller size of these last 
is not ■ surprising, considering the greater distance they have 
probably travelled. The greatest height at which we have noticed 
them is a little under 800 feet. 

Freestone boulders of a similar kind are seen on porphyrite 
near the water-tank on the side of: the Common Burn Boad 200 
or 300 yards above the Green Castle Camp, in the gorge of the 
Settles, and more conspicuously in the drift by Skirlnaked 
tlOS N.E.) 

Sections showing different varieties of drift together occur in 
the following places: — by Kilham resprvoir, Boulder Clay over 
sand ; the foot of College Water, angular porphyrite drift with 
irregular sand layers near the top and bottom; ^ mile below 
'Heathpool Linn, angular porphyrite drift in bands of various 
water-bearing power mixed with sand ; Hambleton Burn below 
the mill, Boulder Clay on sand or gravel or mixed with irregular 
bands thereof 

The well-rounded glacial gravels frequently forrn conspicuous 
ridges or steep knowes, e.g., '\ mile south of the Langham Bridge, 
Bowmcnt, \ mile N.N.E. of Whaup Moor, 100 yards S. of the 
Kilham reservoir, below the Trows, Wooler, and yarlous pfaces 
on the S. side of the turnpike-road between Akeld and Woolet. 
East of Thornington, on the N. side of the Bowinont is a' large 


mound of this character which has been a good deal dug into for 
sand for building-purposes and for gravel. The gravel contains 
porphyrite and Silurian boulders and the acams of sand dip witb 
the slope of the hill. At Eeedsford is a patch of well-rounded 
gravel in which there is an old pit. The following varieties of 
boulders were noted : — 

Porphyrite most-abundant and least rounded. 
Gfroy, red; 'and gueenish grit, perhaps Silurian. 
SoJEtiwhite sa^ndstone, Carboniferous. 
Fine-grained black trap, or basalt. 
Qtiartzite,'. sOnie boulders with hfematite jiests. 
' D&irk or' black Ijydian Stone (?) 
Yellowish pink freestone. 

It is doubtful' if the strip coloured as glacial gravel, W. of the- 
Bowmont and S. of Bowmontllill, may not be an old alluvial 
gravel of ihe Bowmont. However, the undoubtetl glacial gravel 
spreads out 6\^er a large area about MindrummM], and passing 
W. of the rocky fields of Downham, joins on to the main mass of 
the sand and gravel mounds which cover so large an area south- 
and east of Gornhill. 

On the sides of many of the hill-streams the main thickn«s3 of 
the drift is disposed in rude ferrace^like forms. This is w«U 
seen in the College Water. 

W. G. and 0. T. 0. 



Post-Glacial Deposits. 

Alluvium, — The Alluvium of the Tweed, Till, and other rivers 
consists mostly of loam, sand, and gravel. Along the Tweed there 
is no great spread of it except between Coldstream and Wark 
and ab'out Carham. The expansion E. of Wark may have been 
the site of a lake. At Carham, Wark, Oornhill, and Tillmouth 
there are several old river-gravel terraces or flats rising up by 
steps to considerable heights above llie river. The highest at 
Carham is about 40 ft. above the stream, at Cornhill about 30, and 
at Tillmouth, the highest is about 50 ft. above the junction of the two 
streams. Here there are two lower terraces, the intermediate one 
being that on which stands St. Cuthbert'a Chapel. There is a 
terrace corresponding to the highest on the other side of the Till 
above Twizell Boat House. In the lower part of the Till, between 
Etal and Tillmouth, the river runs in a ravine, and the strips of 
alluvium are very narrow, but there are distinct traces of high gravel 
terraces in several places. There are several below Old Heaton 
Mill, where the highest on the west side is more than 50 ft. above 
the stream. It surrounds an oval-shaped mound which is 
probably composed of rock. There is another terrace of about 
the same height above the river, E. of Old Heaton. 

There is often difficulty in coming to a satisfactory conclusion 
concerning the character of the high gravel-areas bordering the 
Bowmont, the Glen, and other streams. Are they to be considered 
inter-glacial, or river-gravels of a later date ? In the latter case 
they might still be considered as glacial in a certain sense, for 
they may have been formed towards the close of the Glacial 
Period when the ice still lingered on the hill-tops and gave rise to 
bigger and swifter rivers than the present. Their irregularity of 
form might also be explained thus, though denudation in subsequent 
times would probably suffiote as well. 

The side valley leading to the east of Humbleton Burn, a 
little above Highburn House, is in all probability the old course of 
the stream. There is more alluvium along it than along the 
present course, and the valley is in places deeply cuf. At its 
foot there opens out a wide delta-like high terrace on which 
stand the Vicarage and Wooler Cottage. This is bounded on the 
eastward by a steep bank, at the foot of which is the more 
modern alluvium of the Wooler Water. 

W. G. and C. T. C. 

Milfield Plain claims somewhat separate treatment. It has 
been already referred to as the probable site of an old lake, 
covering about 12 square miles of area, stretching from 
Wooler to Etal, a distance of 8 miles or more, and in places 


having a width of from 2 to 3 miles. A portion of this, however, 
lies in the sheet to the East. The plain lies between the 100 
and 200 ft. conlourj, but only the modern alluvium of the river 
haughs about Crookham lies below 100. Above this the same 
contour lieeps along the river-banks, and in the bed up to the 
junction of the Till with the Glen, showing how little is the fall of 
the river in this part. Very little of the plain rises above 1 80 ft., 
so that the average height may be given as 150. It is greatest, 
however, in the south-west, as there is a general slope of the 
plain from Xanton and Coupland towards the E. and N., where 
the height is less. The plain for the most part is covered with 
gravel and sand, resting on laminated stoneless clay. The latter, 
however, is at the surface- in a few places, e.g., Doddington Tile 
Works (and, perhaps, S.E. of Fenton Town), S. of Mount 
Pleasant, and N. and N. W. of Kimmerston, where is the largest 
clayey tract. The clay is, perhaps, also near the surface at 
Kimmerston Bog. 

The depth of this clay is enormous. At Flodden Tile Works 
I was informed it was certainly 40 ft. deep — how much more had 
never been proved. It has there 3 ft. of moderately fine gravel 
over it. At Second Linthaugh, to the northward, a well 27 ft deep 
had 7 ft, of gravel over 20 of fine clay. The clay is generally 
reddish, as it appears in numerous small sections in ditches and 
streams, and it may be seen in the W. bank,s of the Till in several 
places between the tile-works and Second Linthaugh, with 2 to 
4 ft. of gravel over it. We see it again in both banks of the river 
higher up than the tile-works, for about half a mile or so, when 
it sinks nearly below the river-bed. Grey clay is however seen 
near the water's edge in places under the modern loam, even as 
far up the Till as above its junction with the Glen, and this may 
be only the red clay somewhat modified. 

Curious ring-like concretions, from 2 to 4 inches in diameter, 
have been found in the clay at the Flodden Tile Works ; an 
example, obtained by Mr. J. Rhodes, is preserved in the Museum 
of Practical Geology. 

Generally speaking, the sand and gravel overlying the clay are 
thicker on the Ewart Estate than they are further north, this 
estate being mostly on sand, running sand, with stiffer sand and 
fine gravel in thin layers. There are occasionally thin seams of 
clay— grey, blue, or red. A well near Ewart Park, 24 {\, deep, was 
mostly in sand, and close to the Hall pipes were driven down to a 
depth of 90 ft., and no rock was reached, but probably the lower 
part of this was in clay, as the clay has been dug at Ewart Brick 
and Tile Works, where it is seen to be capped by 6 or 7 ft. of sand. 
Mr. Milne Home, in a paper in the Eoyal Society of Edinburgh's 
Transactions, vol. xxvii., p. 529, gives some interesting par- 
ticulars about borings here. He mentions that on the Ewart 
Estate, on Low Haugh land, opposite to Humbledon Buildings, 
where the clay is at the surface, Sir Horace St. Paul bored down 
70 fr. and did not go through it. He penetrated a few thin 
seams of gravel. At another place a boring for water went through 


25 ft. of dry gravel and sand, and then 20 ft. of gravel and sand,, 
with much water. Then a thick bed of clay was reached, which 
was bored into to a depth of 100 ft., when the rods broke. There 
was nothing in this clay but a few thin seams of gravel. This 
boring must have been down nearly to the sea-level. At one place 
sandstone-rock was reached under 50 ft. of sandy clay. Thi& 
rock, however, comes to the surface S. of Akeldsteads. The clay 
seems to thin rapidly up the Bowmont. Near Ooupland Oastle 
is the following section in the river-bank :— 

Gravel moderately coarse — well waahed,"4 to 5 feet. 

Sand not well ueen, said to be running ; several feet probably, V , 

Greyish sandy clay — part laminated, witbout stones. 6 feet to 

7 feet at least. 
Sand red and brown, coarse, stratified, several feet. 
Coarse gravel below, several feet seen. ' f 

About half a mile to the N.E. of this, laminated reddish, or brown 
fine laminated clay is seen at the base of the old river-bank under 
sand and gravel. 

The overlying gravel has been tlie following places: 7-; r 
Th ere is an old and deep pit on the S. side of the .road,,VO(J 
yards W.' of Ford Bridgp, and on the river bank adjoining lO to 
12 ft. may be seen, rriostly rather fine gravel, with' a few. inches 
of clayey sand about 5 ft. from the top. There is a pit close to the 
E. bank of the Til), near the S. end of Pheasant's Wood. This 
showed the following section : — 

Sand and sandy eartb, 2 to 3 feet. / " 

Gravel, ratber small, witb thin irregular seams of coarse gra,velly 
sand, 6 to 7 feet. 

There are old gravel-pits in Redscar Wood, a,nd at the east end 
of it, by the river-side, an interesting section ; — 

Bather small gravel from nearly to about 3 feet, resting 
irregularly here and there on a denuded surface of stratified sand, 
mostly light-brown and running, but some reddish and stifEer. 
About 4 feet of this is seen, but it probably goes down 4 or 
5 feet further to a wet line, and there may be clay below. 

A somewhat similar section is seen in a small stream 300 yards 
N.N.E. of Gale Wood :— 

4 to 5 feet of well-wasbed and rounded gravel, resting on dennded 
surface of fine light brown stratified running sand with some 
gravel, about 5 feet seen. 

There is an old pit S.W. of Gale Wood, showing moderately 
fine gravel with some sand, and of course the gravel shows in many 
of the fields all over the plain. 

Both the Rivers Glen and Till have cut down into the ol^ 
plain, and formed out of it new alluvial matter at lower levels. 
The Glen runs in a shallow and shifting channel 2 or 3 ft. deep, 
mostly over gravel, nnd its alluvial flats are composed of gravel, 
with sand in places, down to below Akeld Bridge. Lower dovi^n 
the modern alluvium is mostly composed of sdnd or loam like that 
of the Till where it runs through the plain, and the channel is 


much deeper. The bed of the Till is, in places, more than 
10 ft. deep, as the banks are 10 ft. higli above the water about the 
junction of the two rivers. 

Besides the Till and the Glen, smaller streams liave cut down 
into this old plain and formed lower alluvial flats, e.ff., the stream 
which runs by Marley Knowe and Milfield, and another called 
Bradford Burn to the south of Ford. But the most remarkable 
JioUow o£ this kind is an old river-course which can be clearly 
traced from near Ooupland past Gale Wood and Thirlings. There 
is not much doubt that this little valley was formed by the Glen 
"when it ran at a much higher level, as suggested by Mr. -Milne 
Home in the paper already referred to — "Notices of, High Water 
Marks," &c. The general level of the plain at Ooupland, is about 
30 ft. above that of the more modern nlluvium of the Glen. The 
depression of the old valley at the top of the bank E. of Cpupland, 
is not very marked; but it deepens as we follow it eastvvard and 
also widens, arid we find after crossing the i^oad to Milfield, and 
between it and Gale Wood, a mossy flat-bottomed little valley with 
old terraces bordeiring it— all below the level of the old pkiin. 

The boundary of the old lake is nearly everywhere well- 
marked on the west side, the ground rising- pretty steeply from 
the plain, hut on the east side the limit is not so clear, except 
between Kimmerston and Fenton Mill. At Nesbit there seems 
a good-sized patch of Boulder Clay which must, however, have 
been covered by the waters of the lake when they stood above 
180 ft., as it is only about 150 ft. above the sea. Mr. Milne Home 
in his paper speaks of the 185 ft. b6ach lines, and this height seems 
about right for the foot of the well-marked bank forming the 
boundary by Lanton and Sandy House on the W. side. It 
would seem, therefore, that the waters must have covered a good 
deal of the low sandy ground below 200 ft. which lies between 
Nesbit and Fenton Hill, and also ground similarly situated between 
Kimmerston and Ford, besides the patches previously mentioned 
as lying near the river N.E. of Milfield, and those near Ford 
Forge. But it was thought these seemed more like drift than 
deposits formed in the old lake. 

The lake was probably formed about the close of the Glacial 
period, the waters being dammed back by the moundy deposits of 
sand and gravel about Crookham and Etal. These deposits had 
blocked up the old pre-glacial course of the Till (which was to 
the north of Branxton and onwards to the Tweed about Oornhill), 
and compelled it to form a new course so that the outflow from 
the lake out the deep and narrow beautifully-wooded ravine 
between Etal and Tv\izell. That the Till once, ran at a much 
higher level than it does at present -isj shown by the reniains of 
•the high terraces formerly mentioned near Tiptoe and OldHeaton 
Mil), and there is a somewhat doubful one nenr Old Etal just 
where the ravine begins. The comp/iratively recent and. post- 
glacial origin of this ravine, .acdpiinta for tlie great contrast 
between the river above Etal, ,and the river below. Of course 
there must have been great changes in the outline of the ground 


at Orookham since the time referred to — the barrier which kept 
m the water has been breached and much worn down by ordinary 
denudation, but it is still at a height of 150 ft. or more on either 
side of the rirer between Crookham and Ford Forge. Also the 
moundy deposits filling up the old valley have suffered denudation. 
The thick deposit of clay in the old lake may have been to a 
great extent derived from the melting of the ice at the close of 
the Glacial period, and thus by some may be regarded as of Glacial 
age. However this may be the overlying gravels and sands of 
the plain west of Coupland graduate into those of the old 
alluvium of the Glen above Lanton, and the whole about here and 
as far down as Coupland Castle must certainly be regarded as old 
delta-deposits formed by the Glen where it entered the lake. 

Peat Bogs with Shell Marl, ^c. — Scattered about over the 
Carboniferous area are numerous hollows, which werr; once lakes, 
now covered with silt, sand, or peat. The largest and deepest of 
these is Ford Moss, the peat of which was found to be 32 ft. deep 
on its S. side,' resting on quicksand. A moss S.W. of Bracken- 
side has been proved to be 22 ft. deep. Most of these have now 
been drained, and the dwarf trees, birch and alder, and the bog 
plants, have mostly disappeared, as at The Hagg and the Horse 
Sog. At English Struther Bog only eight birch trees remain. 
Oampfield Bog and one at Barelees show what the others were 
once like. In most of these the peat rests on a bed of shell- 
marl composed of the remains of the freshwater snails that lived 
in the lakes, mixed with other remains. Thus shell-marl, with 
nuts, &c., occurs at Moneylaws, and again at Tithehill and 
English Struther Bog. These depoeits of shell-marl were 
formerly dug for manure, particularly at Marl Bog between East 
Learmouth and Branxtcm, one mile W.S.W. from the latter 
place, and also at the bog half mile east of Sunnylaws, where 
several large stag antlers and a curious oaken paddle were found. 
At the Marl Bog the following section was seen : — 

Peat, a few feet, resting on yellowish, siell-marl, 4 to 5 feet, 

getting clayey below. 
The marl weathers white and consists of a mass of shells mostly of 

the two species Idmnea peregrina var ovata or lacustris and Cyclas . 

In one place a bed of gravel was interstratified with the shell- 

Sometimes peat or black earth only spreads over part of a 
hollow previously occupied by sand or clay. 

The long narrow bog which fills the bottom of Haiden Dean 
deserves mention. 

These deposits of shell-marl have been noticed by previous 
writers. Winch, in his paper, •' Observations on the Geology of' 
Northumberland and Durham," in the Transactions of the 
Geological Society, voL iv., p. 96, says, " Considerable quantities 
of marl have been discovered on the west side of the river Till 
in situations which seem to have been the bottoms of lakes, and 
in the alluvial matter horns of some species of bos and oervus 


have been found imbedded. The marl is of a light grey colour 
and contains bivalve and univalve shells which retain their pearly 
lustre. This substance has been noticed at Wark, Sunny laws, 
Learmoutb, Mindrum, The Hagg, The Hopper, and at several 
other places in that neighbourhood " (1814). 

But there is a much older notice of them than this in Wallis's 
Natural History and Antiquities of Northumberland, written in 
1769. At p. 35 we find the following : — "A friable grey marie 
with shells is in a large boggy area by a farm called Sunnylaws, 
near Wark, in Glendale, the stratum of considerable thicknes?. 
Heavy, unctuous, stains the hands ; makes violent effervescence 
with aqua fortis. Used as manure and accounted excellent. Not 
been long discovered.'' At p. 33 he speaks of a great marl-pit 
at Etall by the road to Ford, on the left hand, in which is a 
stratum of dusky reddish-brown marl, heavy and shattery, which 
does not effervesce with aqua fortis. In the same pit is a stratum 
of friable greenish-yeilow marl, which effervesces with aqua fortis. 
Great quantities of it and the former have been dug for manure. 

This last pit has probably been filled in, as I was unable to 
find it. 




, fos^iUfroitv the Lower Garhoniferqus Roeks. 
■ Napped by Messrs. G-. Sharman and E. T. Newton, F.E.S. 

The "fbllowing ig a list of the localities from which' specimens have been 
obtained ; the numbers corresponding with those appended: to the names; 
of species-: — , ,,.,,, .,., , ,.:,, 

1. Eiver TTV^'eed, "W. ofWark Castle (l.m. distant), , 

'- "2. River Ttreed, W. of Wark Castle. •'--;' 

3. River Tweed, 150 yards below Coldstream Bridge. ' 

4. R,iver Tweed, J mile below Coldstream-Bridge. 

5. River Tweed, f mile below Cold^frreanft Bridg.e. 

6. River Tweed, 2 miles below Coldstpeam, Erid^je. 

7. River Tweed, J mile above junction pf River Till. 

8. River Tweed, 100 yards above junction with River 'Till. 

9. IRiver Tweed, lOO yards b'elow junction- of River Till. 

10. River Till, 150 yards S. of Old Heaton Mill. 

11. Old quarry (in Dun Limestone) 2i miles S.W. of Lowiok and 

i mile S. of South Moor Farm House. 

12. Wood End Quarry (Wood End Limestonp), 2i miles N.E. of Etal. 

13. Old quarry in Woodend Limestone a little W. of Winterburn, 2. 
miles N.E of Ford. 

14. Dnnsall Quarry, 24 to 3 miles N.E; of Ford; 


Plant stems ? sp., 9. 

Araucarioxylon Withami, L. ^ H. 5, 7. 

,, (Pitas) antiqua, TFii&am,* Lennel Braes and Tweed 

,, ( n ) primEeva, „ * Tweed Mill. 

Plants were collected by the Survey at several places along the banks 
of the Tweed. Stems showing traces of structure, but too imperfect for 
determination, from 100 yards below the junction of the River Till, and 
spscimens of Araucarioxylon as determined by Mr. Kidston, from the 
Tweed f mile below Coldstream Bridge, and also from, the same J mile 
above the junction of the-Till. 


Alveolites depressa, Flem., 14. 

„ septosa, Flem., 12, 13. 

Aulopora, sp., 13. 

Cyathophyllum Murchisoni, M. Edio. , 14. 
Heterophyllia granulata, Dune, 12. 

,, sp., 13. 

Lithostrotion junceum, Flem., 11, 12, 13, 14. 

Porllocki, 31. Fdw., 12, 13. 
MontiouHpora tumida, Phih, 12. 
Syringopora ramnlosa ? Gold/., 12. 

„ sp., 14. 

Zaphrentis Phillipsi, M. Fdw., 14. 

* Given on authority of G. Tute in Fossil Flora of the Mountain Limestone of the 
Eastern Borders. An Appendix to Johnston's Nat. Hist, of the Eastern Borders. 
The names have been revised by Mr. R. Kidston. 



Actinoorinus (stems), 12. 
Archseocidaris urei, Flem., 13. 

,, plates, 12. 

Poteriocrinus (stems), 12. 
Bhodoorinus (stems), 12. 


Soirorbis helicteres, Salt, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. 
• „ 1,3. 



Leperditia Okeni, Miin., 12, 14. 

,, lovicensis, Jo}ves and Kirkby, 12. 

Beyrichia craterigera, G. S. Brady, 12. 

,, sp. (smooth), 12. 

Xirkbya costata, M'Coy, 12. 

„ permiana, Jones, 14. 

,, Timbonata, B'Eich, 12, 14. 
Cytherella valida, J. and K. and Brady, 12. 

„ ,, var. affiliata, 12. 

„ Benniei, J. and K. and B., 12. 

,, sp., 14. 

iBythocypris ouneola, J. and K., 12. 

„ thraso, J. and K., 12. 

„ bilobata, Miin., 12, 14. 

„ Phitlipsiana, J. and H., var. carbonica, 12. 

rBythocytliere Toungiana, /. and K., 12. 
Bairdia plebeia, iJeuss, 12, 14. 

„ brevis, J. and K., 12, 14. 

.„ subelongata, /. and K., 12, 14. 

,, Bubmucronata P /. and K., 12, 14 

„ ourta, M'Goy, 12, 14. 

,, grandis, /. and K., l2. 

„ amputate, KirJchy, 12. 

, , ampla, Beuss, 12. 


'Ceriopora interporosa, Phil., 14. 
Diastopora megasl.oma, M'Goy, 14. 
Ebabdomeson gracile, P7nL,'14. 


Athyris' ambigua. Sow., 12. 

„ Eoysii, L'Eveille, 12. 
Ohonetes Laguessiana, Be Kon, 14. 
Orthis Micholini, L'Eveille, 14. 
Productus giganteiis. Mart, 12, 13, 14. 

„ longiapinus. Sow:, 12, 13. 

,, semiretioulatns, Mart., 12, 13. 

Ebynchonella pleurodon, Phil., 6. 
Spirifera trigonalis ? Mart, 12, 13, 14. 
Spiriferina laminosa, M!'Goy, 12., 
Streptorhynchtis crenistria, Phil., 12. 
Stropbomena rbomboidalis, var. analoga, Phil,, \9, 


The species of Ostracoda have heen named by Prof. Kupert Jones and Mr, 
;by from collections made by the Geological Survey. 




Avioulopeoten, sp. ; fragment, — 12. 
Modiola Maoadami, Portl., 3, 8. 

,, subparallela ? Portl., 1, 3, 4, 7. 

„ sp., 5. 
Myalina lamellosa ? Be Kon, 2. 
Sanguinolites, sp., — 6. 
Solemya primEBVa, Phil., 12. 


Loxonema rugifera, M'Ooy, 12. 

sp., 14. 
Maoroohijina ovalis, M'Ooy, 12. 
Murohisonia elongata, Portl., 4. 
Naticopsis, sp., 4, 12. 
Turbo, sp., — 7. 

Belleroplion decussatus, Flem. 14, 
,, tenuifascia. Sow., 12. 


Orfchoceras, sp., 4, 12. 


Oladodus mirabilis, Ag., 8. 
Otenodus, sp., 1. 

Ctenoptyohius pectinatns, Ag., 3. 
Elonichthys ? 3. 
risb scale, 3. 

„ tooth, 13. 
G-yracanthus obliquus? M'Ooy, 1. 
Palssoniscoid scale, 3. 
Bhizodopsis, sp., 2. 
Strepsodus ? 2, 5, 6, 3. , 

Fossils collected for the Geological Survey of Scotland along the banks 

of the Tweed.* 


Eosoorpius, sp. Lennel Braes. 

Anthrapalaemon Woodwardii, B. Etheridge, jitwr. Coldstream Bridge. 

GlyptoscorpiuB Oaledonieus, Salt,, Lennel Braes. 

Prestwiohia, sp. Lennel Braes. 

Polydesmus, sp. Lennel Braes. 


Aloicornopteris oonvolntus, Kidston. Lennel Braes. 

* The list has been kindly supplied by Mr. B. N. Peach, F.E.S., acting pateon- 
iologist to the Geological Survey of Scotland. 



1769. Wallis, A.m., John. The Natural History and Antiquities of 

Northumberland, 2 vols. 4to, London. 
1814. Thomson, Dr. T. A Geogiiostical Sketch of the Counties of 

Northumberland, Durham, and part of Cumberland. Annals of 

PMhsophy, ser. 1, vol. iv., pp. 337-410. 
1814. Winch, K. J. Observations on the Geology of Northumberland 

and Durham. Trans. Geol. 8oc., ser. 1, vol. iv., p. 1. 

1829. Gullet, M. A few facts and observations as to the power which 

running water exerts in removing heavy bodies. Proc. Geol. Soc. , 
vol. i., p. 149. 

1830. WlTHAM, T. On the Vegetable Fossils found at Lennel Braes, near 

Coldstream, upon the banks of the River Tweed, in Berwickshire. 
PMl. Mag., ser. 2, vol. viii., p. 16. 

1831. Thomson, R. D. Contributions to the Geology of Berwickshire. 

(Read before the Berwick Nat. Club, Dec. 21, 1831) Mag. Nat. 

Hist., vol. v., p. 637. 
1831. Winch, N. J. Remarks on the Geology of the Banks of the Tweed. 

Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northwrriberlomd, Dv/rham, and Newcastle, 

vol. i. ; and 4to., Newcastle ; and Phil. Mag. and Ann., new ser., 

vol., ix. 
1831. Witham, T. Observations on Fossil Vegetables, 2 vols., 4to.,- 

London. 2nd edition in 1833, entitled " The Internal Structure of 

Fosil Vegetables." 
1831. Sedgwick, Rev. Phof. A. Address to the Geological Society, 

London. Proa. Geol. Soc, vol. i., pp. 286, 287. 
1833. De la Beche, H. T. Geological Manual, 3rd edition, 8vo., London, 

pp. 386,387,391, 392. 
Witham, J. On the Red Sandstones of Berwickshire. Trans. Nat. 

Hist. Soc.-Northumberlamd, Durham, and Newcastle, vol. i. 

1835. Milne, D. On the Geology of Berwickshire. Report Brit. Assoc. 

for 1834, p. 624. - 

1836. Thomson, Dr. R. D. Observations on the Strata of Berwickshire 

and North Durham. Proc. Ber. Nat. Field OVuh, vol., i., p. 85. 

1837. Milne Home, D. A Geological Survey of Berwickshire, 8vo., 

Edimhurgh ; and Trans. HighJamd Soc, vol. xii., p. 169. 

1838. Milne Home, D. On the Berwick and North Durham Coaliield. 

Bep. Brit. Assoc. Trams. Sec, p. 76 (1839). 

1838. Wood, N. On the Red Sandstone of the Tweed and Carlisle. Jbid. , 

p. 78. 

1839. BxrcKLAND, Rev. Phop. W. In Proc Oeol. Soc, vol. iii., p. 346. 

Describes Moraines at Middleton and Kirk Newton. 
1843. Stevenson, W. On the Stratified Rooks of Berwickshire, and their 

Embedded Organic Remains. Proc. Geol. Soc.,- vol. iv., p. 29. 
1843. Milne Home, D. Geological Account of Roxburghshire. 4to., 

Hdinhurgli ; and Trans. Boy. Soc. Bdin., vol. xv., part iii., p. 433. 
1853. Tate, G. The Fossil Flora of the Mountain Limestone Formation 

of the Eastern Borders, in Johnston's Nat. History of the Eastern 

Borders, p. 290. 

1861. Boyd, E. F. On a part of the Carboniferous Limestone of North 

Northumberland. Trans. N. of Hng. Inst, of Min. Eng., vol. ix., 
p. 185. JDiscussion, vol. xi., pp. 179, 196 (1862). 

1862. Tate, G. The Antiquities of Tevering Bell and Three Stone Bum, 

among the Cheviots in Northumberland, with an account of 
Excavations made into Celtic Forts, Hut Dwellings, Barrows, 
and Stone Circles. Proc. Ber. Nat. Field Club, vol. iv., pp. 
431-453. ^ 

1866. Meahns, Rev. P.— The Kaim at Wark on the Tweed. Proc Ber. 

Nat. Field Club, vol. v.. No. 3, p. 224. 

1867. Tate, G. The Cheviots, their geographical range, physical 

features, mineral characteristics, relation to stratified rocks, 
origin, age, botanical peculiarities. Proc Ber. Nat. Field Club, 
vol. v.. No. 5, p. 359. 


1868. Tate, G-. Natural History Transactions of Nortliumberland and 
D'urliam, vol. ii., chap. i. Geology. 

1868. Bailes, G-. Sections of Mountain Limestone Strata at Scremerston, 

Korthumberland, with a note on the Scremerston Bections by G-. 
Tate. Froc. Ber. Nat. Field Gtub, vol. v., No., 5, p. 349., 
,1868-9. Tate, G. The History of the Boi-ough, Castle, and Barony of 
Alnwick, vol. ii. 8vo. Ahiii-ich. 

1869. Tate, G. The Geology, Botany, and Zoology of the noigtbourhood 

of Alnwick. 8vo. Alnwick. (Reprint of chapters from The 

1876. Lebouk, G. a. On the Limits of the Yoredale Series in the North 

of England. Oeol Mag., Deo. IT., vol. ii., p. 539. 
1876. Lebotje, G. A. On the Larger Divisions of the Carboniferous 

System in Northumberland. Trans. N. of. Eng. Inst. Mm. JSng., 

vol. XXV., p. 22-5. 
1876. Geikie, Peoe. J. The Cheviot Hills. Good Words, vol. xvii, 

p. 11-15, 81-86, 264-270, 331-337; Fragments of Earth Lore, 

8vo., Lotidon, 1893. 

1876. Milne Home, ,D. Notices of High "Water Marks on the Banks of 

the Eiver Tweed, and some of its Tributaries. Trans. Roy. 8oe. 
J?dm.j vol. xxvii., part 4, p. 613. 

1877. Leboue, G-. A. Notes on the Age of the Cheviot Beds. iJep. 

Brit. Assoc. Trans. Sect, p. 72. 

1878. Lebotje, G. A. Outlines ol the Geology of Northumberland, 8vo., 

Newcastle and London. 
1878-94. An Account of the Strata of Northumberland and Durham as 

proved by. Borings and Sinkings. North of Eng. Insi. Min. 

Eng. , - ; 

1881. Lebouk, G-. A. On the Mineral Eesources of the Country between 

Eothbnry and "Wooler, Northumberland. Trans. North of Eng. 

Inst. Min. Eng., vol. xxx., p. 121. 
Lebouk, G-., A. Geological Map of Northumberland. . Newcastle. 
1883. Hughes, G. P. On the Former Physical Condition of Glendale, 

Northumberland. Be^. Brit. Assoc, Sections, p. 98 ; and Proc. 

Ber. Nat. FieU Club, vol. X., -p. 2^7. , ,„ 

1883. Teall, J. J. Haeris. Notes on the Cheviot !^hdesites and 

Porphyrites. Geol. Mag., Dec. II., vol. x., pp. 100, 146, and '262. 
1883. Teall, J. J. Hakkis. On Hypersthene Andesites. Geol. Mag. 

Dec. IL, vol. X., p. 344.^ 
1885. Teall, J.J. Haeeis. , On Quartz-Felsites and Augite- Granites frpnj 

the Cheviot District. ©eoZ. Jfos^., Dec III., vol. ii., p. 106. 
1887. Leboue, G. A. Sketch of the Geology of Northumberland. Free. 

Geol. Assoc, vol. ix., pp. 655-596. 

1887. MrLLEK, H. On the Classification of the Carboniferous Limestone 

Series; Northumberland Type. Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1886; 
pp. 674-676. 

1888. Bkown, M. W. a Further Attempt for the Correlation of the Coal 

• Seams of the Carboniferous Formation of the North of England, 

with some Notes on the Probable Duration of the ' CoaLfield'. 

Trans. N, of Eng. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. xxxvii., p. 3. 
1888. HowsE, K. Contributions towards a Catalogue of the Flora of the 

Carboniferous System of Northumberland'ahd Durham, Part I. 

Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northwmberland, vol. x,, p. 19. 
1890. TOPLEY, "W. The "Work of the Geological Survey in Northumberland 

and Durham. Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1889, pp. 597-600. 




Acre Limestoue, SO, 39. 
-igates iu porphyrite, 12. 
Agglomerate, volcanic, 7, 11. 
Akeld, 78, 82. 

Burn, 8, 19, 20, 64. 

Hill, 4, 78. 

Akeldsteads, 82. 

Allerdean Mill Burn, 42. 

Alnwick, 16, 75. 

Amphibole, 13. 

Amygdaloidal porphyrite, 5, 11, 12. 

diabase, 14, 15. 

Ancroft Greens, 56. 

Soutlimoor, 54, 56, 57. 

Andesite, 5, 6, 12. 

Anortbite, 14. 

Ashy bands in Lower Carboniferous, 

Ashy bands in Old Eed porphyrite, 7, 

8, 12. 
Augite, 5, 6, 13. 

in giunite, 60. 

Augite-andesite, 13. 


Bailes, George, 37, 89. 

I^uds in porphyrite, 6.- 

Barelees, 84. 

Barley Hill, 11, 12. 

Mill, 27. 

Barmoor, 55, 56, 57. 

Kidge, 51-53, 55, 72, 73. 

— Soutlimoor, 73. 
Bastite, 13. 
BeU, The, 4. 
Benty Crag, 60. 
Benington, 50. 

Burn, 54, 55. 

Law, 54, 57. 

Berwick Co., I . 
Berwick-ou-Tweed, 32, 50. 
Berryhill, 73. 
Berryhill Crag, 29, 68. 
Blackohester Hill Fault, 69. 
Black Hill, 35, 47, 73. 
e 88198. 

Black Hill Coal Seam, 32, 33, 35. 37 

Blakelaw, 71, 74, 76. 
Borings aud sinkings, 32-59, 65. 
Boulder Clay, 3, 65, 71, 76-78, 83. 
Boulla Crag, 15. 
Bowmont Hill, lo, 79. 

River or Water, 1, 2, 4 7 9 in 

19.71,73,74,78-80,82. ' ' ' 
Bowsden, 58, 59, 66, 68. 

dyke, 66. 

Moor, 51, 64. 

«oyd, E.r.,36, 37, 40,68, 89. 

Brackenside, 53, 54 56, 84. 

Bradford Burn, S3. 

Branxton, 21, 27, 67, 74, 83, 84. 

Allotment, 12. 

Hill, 4, 10, 11,21. 

Moor, 11. 

Brickkiln Plantation, 73. 

Broadstratfier Burn, 5, 60, 63, 64, 70. 

Broomie Knowe, 74. 

Broomridge, 30. 

— Dean, 27. 
Brown, M. W., 90. 

W., 55. 

Brownridge (Slainsfield), 46. 

(Tweed), 25. 

Hill (Ford Moss), 47. 

Buckland, Rev. Prof. W., 89. 
Buhnan Coal Seam, 35-41, 44. 
Burnt Heugh, 11. 


Calcareous Division or Group, 2, 17. 

Description of, 50. 

Calcite, 5, IJ, 19, 70. 
Caller Heugh Bank, 25. 
Campfield, 74, 75, 84. 
Camp Hill, 10, 11. 
Cancer Coal, 35. 
Canuo Mill, 4. 
Carbonaceous Group, 2, 17. 

Description of, 32. 

Carboniferous Rocks, 14, 15. 
Traps, 14, l.*). 



Carey Burn, 64. 

Carham, 3, 19, 21, 22, 76, ?7, 80. 

Burn, 14, 15, 21, 22. 

Church, 15, 22. 

- — Hall, 14, 23. 

Limestone, 3, 15, 19. 

Account of, 21-23. 

Carr, David, 42. 

Castle Heatoni dyke at, 65. 

Cement- Stones, 21, 23. 

Cement-Stone Group, 2 j Historical 
Sketch of, 15. 

Chalcedony, 5. 

Chalkstone, 36, 38. 

Chert, 17, 21. - 

Chlorite, 14. 

Clay beds, 7. 

pits, 73, 81. 

Cleghorne Knowe, 74. 

Coals, see Blackhill, Cooper Eye, Dun, 
Fawcet, Greerises, Hardy, Kiln, 
Main, Muckle Howgate, Little How- 
gate, Three Quarter, Wester. 

Coal Pits, sections of, see Pelkington 
40, Gatherick, 36 ; Greenlawalls, 39 ; 
Old Greenlawalls, 37 ; Ford Moss, 32. 

Coal in Sandstone, 27, 30. 

Coalharbour, 51, 53, 66, 68. 

Coldside Hill, 2, 10, 12. 

Coldsmouth Hill, 2, 4, 5, 8, 61. 

Coldstream, 24, 25, 66, 76, 80, 

College Water, 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 64, 78, 79. 

Collieries, see Coal Pits'; 

Common Bum, 1 5, 6, 7, 60, 63, 64, 

70, 78. ' ' ' 

Concretions, 27, 45, 81. 
Conybeare, Eev. W. D., 16. 
Cooper Eye Coal Seam, 32, 34-38, 

40-46, 48, 49, 67, 68. 
Coquet, R., 10. 
Cornhill, 64, 71, 72, 74, 75 (Fig.), 76, 

79, 80, 83. 
— ■ — dyke, 64. 

quarry, 25. 

Coupland, 81, 83, 84. 

Castle, 18, 82. 

Cow Crag, 43. 
Cramond Hill, 7G. 
Crookham, 27, 74, 81, 83, 84. 

West Field, 23. 

Cross Fell, 16. 
Culley, M., 18. 
Cumberland, Ifl, 
Cyclas, 84. 


, Dayfalls, 42. 
Dent, 36. 

De la Beche, Sir H. T., 16, 18, 89. 
Diabase, 14, 15. 

Diamond Coal Seam, 36, 37, 39, 41, 46. 
Doddington Moor QpUiery, 42, 48, 69. 

Moor Fault, 69. 

Tile Works, 81. 

Dolerite dykes, 61, 64-66. 

Dolomite, 22. 

Dovehole Crags, 30. 

Downham, 10, 11, 12, 79. 

Drift over Porphyrite area; 77-79. 

Dryburn Colliery, 68. - 

■ ■ Limestone, 50. " 

Drumlins, 71, 72. 

Duddo, 1, 26, 37, 43, 44, 64,'65, 67. 

Fault, 67. 

MillBarn, 29, 44. 

Tile Works, 43, 44, 51, 73. 

Duncanheugh, 26, 

Dun Limestone, 17, 32, 35, 48, 50-68. 

Coal Seam, 32, 50, 51, 53. 

Dun Limestone of LoT\'ick, 60, 59. 
Dunsall, 54, 56-58. 
Durham Co., 50. 
Dykes : — 

Felstone, 60, 64. 

Orthophyre, 62. __. , 

Quartz Porphyry, 64. 

Mica Porphyrite, 63. 

Dolerite, 64-66. 


Earlchillhead, 7. 

Earle, 20. 

Easter Tor, 5, 7, 8. 

East LearmoutJi, 74. ^ 

Melkington, 72. 

Moneylaws, 11, 21, 74. 

Economic Geology, see Coal, Lime- 
stones, Quarries, Clay Pits, Tile 
Works, Sand Pits, Shell Marl. 

Edgewell Cottage, 42. 

Eclwell Limestone, 50, 58, 59. 

Elsdou Burn, 61, 78. 

El van, 2. 

English Struther Bog, 74, 75, 84. 

Erratics, 72, 73, 77-79. 

Etal, 1, 2, 4, 42, 80, 83, 85. 

Colliery, 41, 44, 4.5, 52, 68. 



Etal Mill, 27, 68. 

Moor, 42, 44, 45, 66, 68. 

Ewart, 81. 


Faddeu Hill, 71, 73. 

Faults, 67-69. 

Fawcet Coal Seam, 32, 42-45, 48, 52, 

53, 56, 64. 
Fell Sandstones, 2, 3, 17, 28, 47, 48, 

69 ! Description of, 29-31. 
Felkington, 26, 32, 35, 41, 43, 50, 51, 

65-57, 67. 

Pit Section, 40. 

Fault, 67. 

Felspar, 8, 13-14. 
Felstone dykes, 60, 61, 64. 
Fenton Hill, 2, 28, 30, 31, 69, 83. 

Mill, 28, 73, 83. 

Town, 81. ., 

Finger Burn, 26. 

Fish and Taties Coal, 47. 

Flodden, 4, 10, 12, 20, 70, 73. 

Edge, 3, 4. 

Tile Works, 81. 

Ford, 3, 29, 30, 35, 42, 45, 46, 67-69, 

72, 82, 83, 85. 

Common, 46, 51, 53, 56. 

Fault, 69. 

Forge, 1, 27, 29, 83, 84. 

Quarry, 30, Fig. 

• Hill, po, 37. 

Moss,. 30, 35,41, 42, 48, 50, 53, 

73. , ■■ . . 

Itjpss Colliery. Section, 32. 

Moss Fault, 67, 69. 

Wood, 27. 

Formations, Table of, 2. 
Form of Ground, 3. 
Fossils of Taedian, 17, 20. 

List of Lower Carboniferous,' 86. 

Fragments included in Porphyrites, 5. 


Gale Wood, 82, 83. 

Gatherick, 35-37, 39, 43, 44, 51, 7?. 

Colliery, 36. 

Seikie, Prof. J., 10, 76, 89. 
Gilly's Nick, 23, 76, 77. 
Glacial Deposits, 71-79. 

Erratics, 72, 73, 77-79. 

Sand and Gravel, 73-76, 77-79. 

Striee, 73, 

Glen Eiver, 1, 4, 9, 10, 61, 71, 80-84. 

Glendale, 85. 

Glenlee Ford, 20. 

Goats' Crag, 2. 

Granite, 2, 60. 

Great Hetha, 64. 

Green Castle Camp, 5, 19, 78. 

Greenlawalls, 39, 35, 41-43, 67, 73. 

Pit Section, 39. 

Greenough's Geological Map, 15. 
Greenses, 56. 

• . Limestone, 50, 56-58. 

Coal, 50, 54-56. 

Grey, Mr., 18. 

Grindon Kidge, 2», 72, 73. 


Haddan Hill, 5, 7. 

Hsematite, 6, 8, U . 

Hagg, The, 21,75, 84, 85. 

Haiden Dean, 43, 51, .54, 57, 64, 84. 

Bum, 1. 

Hambleton Burn, 78. 
Hardy Coal Seam, 35-37, 39, 41, 43. 
Hare Law, 7, 8, 61. 
Harelaw Hous% 7. 

Hart Heugh, Wooler, 6, Fig., 8, 63, 

Hazely Hill, 54, 56, 66. 
Heatherslaw, 27. 
Heathpool, 4, 5, 7, 64. 

Linn, 7, 64^ 78. 

Hetha Burn, 7. 
Herefordshire, 16. 
Herrington, Mr., 35. 
Highburn House, 80. 
High Wood, 54, 66. 
Home, Milne D., 81,^83, 89, 90. (See 

Hopper, The, 85. 
Horse Bog, 48,49, 84. 

Ridge, 4, 10. 

Housedon Hill, 2, lo, 12. 
Howse, R., 90. 

Howtel Valley, 3, 4, 10, 12; Carboni- 
ferous Books of, 20. 
.Hughes, G. P., 90. 
Humbleton Buildings, 81. 

Burn, 7, 19, 20, 80. 

Hill, 2,4. 

Hypersthene in Porphyrites, 6, 13 ; in 
Dolerite, 65, 




Iddingsite, 14. 

Independent Coal Formation, 15. 
Interbedded Ashes and Sandstones in 
Cheviot Traps, 7. 


Kaim at Wark, ?4, ?6, 77. 

Knowe, 74. 

Kale, River, 10. 

Kaolin, 7. 

Kelso Dean, 46, 69. 

Traps, 2, 3, 21, 23 ; Description 

of, 14, 15; Microscopical Notes on, 

Kettles The, 4, 5, 78. 
Kilham, 4, 8, 10, 20, 78. 

Hill, 2, 5. 

Kiln Coal, 32, 33, 35, 42, 46, 47. 
Kimmerston, 27,28, 46, 81, 83. 
King's Stone, The, 23. 
Kippie, 10, 21, 62. 
Kirknewton, 1, 3, 20, 61, 64. 

Labradorite, 13, 

Laddie's Knowe, 61 . 

Lady Coal, 32, 34. 

Lady Pit, 37. 

Lancashire, 16. 

Lanton, 18, 61, 62, 81, 83, 84. 

Hill, 2, 12. 

Mill, 61. 

Lanmonite, 15. 

Law, The, 22. 

Learmouth, 75, 84, 85. 

Bog, 75. 

Lebour, Prof. G. A., 90. 

Lennel Braes, 25, 66. 

Lepidodendron, 17. 

Levels, 41. 

Lickar Coais, 68. 

Moor, 51, 67. 

Limestones, see Acre, Carham, Dun, 
Oxford, Eelwell, Lowdean, Watch- 
land, Woodend, 

Limestone Group, 2, 3 ; Description 
of, 50. 

Limestone Shale, 15. 

Limnea peregrina, 84. 

Little Coals, 35, 56. 

Little Howgate Coal, 50, 55, 56. 

Loft Hill, 64. 

Longheugh Crags, 44, 68. 

Fault, 44, 52, 68. 

Long Knowe, 4. 

Hill, 5. 

Low Dean Limestone, 60, 59. 
Lower Carboniferous, 1 S. 
Lowick, 52, 59,-68. 


Maeker, 36, 38. 

Magnesian Limestone, 15. 

^^ limestones, 17. 

Magnetite, 13, 14. 

Main Coal Seam, 32, 33, 35, 36, 39, 

40-49, 68, 69. 
Main, Great, or 12 Fathoms Limestone, 

MakeudOB, 10. 
Mardon, 74. 
Marl Bog, 84 . 
Marldown, 27, 76. 
Marley Knowe, 83. 
Mattilees, 39, 64-66. 

dyke, 43, 64, 72. 

Mearns, Eev. P., 74, 77, 89. 

Melkington, 27, 65, 71, 72. 

Metal, 36. 

Mica in porphyrite, &, 12. 

Mica Porphyrite dykes, 62. 

Microscopical Notes on Cheviot Traps, 

12, 13 ; Kelso Traps, 14 ; Intrusive 

Rocks, 62, 63. 
Miller, Hugh, 90. 
Millfield, 10, 18, 62, 73, 83. 

Hill, 12, 18. 

Plain, 1, 2, 3, 18, 19, 74, 80-84. 

Milne, D., 25, 89 (see also Home). 
Millstone Grit, 15, 17. 
Mindrum, 85. 
Mindrum Mill, 11, 70, 74, 79. 

Scar, 11. 

Modiola, 17, 24. 
Moneylaws, 21, 23, 84. 

Hill, 2, 4, 10. 

Moss Pit, 47. 

Flantiition, 54. 

Mountain Limestone, 16, 17. 
Mount Pleasant, 74, 81. 
Muckle Howgate Coal, 50, 55, 56, 



Neale, Mr., 45, 46, 68. 
Nesbit, 73, 83. 
Nesbitt, E., 4]. 
Newcastle, 41. 

Coal Field, 15. 

New Etal, 27. 

New Heaton, 27, 71, 72. 

New Red Sandstone, lH, 16. 

Newton Tors, 2. 

North Sea, 1. 

Northnmberland, 1, 1.5-17. 


Oil Shale, 49, 50, 54, 50. 

Old Etal, 83. 

Old Greenlawalls, 35, 39, 43, 44. 

Pit Section, 37. 

Old Heaton, 26, 65, 80. 

Mill, 1, 26, 83. 

Old Bed Sandstone, 2, 16, 17, 19. 

Traps, see Porphyrites. 

Old Yeavering, 7. 

Bum, 19, 64. 

Olivine, 14. 
Orthophyre, 61, 62. 
Overlap, 19. 
Oxendean Burn, 25. 
Oxford. 56. 

Limestone, 50, 53, 54, 56-58, 

67, 68. 

Pallinsbum, 27, 74, 76. 
Parrot Coal, 49, 54. 
Paston, 7, 8. 
Patrick, J., 35. 
Pheasant's Wood, 82. 
Philip, 10. 
Phillips, W., 15.- 
Fhysical Features, 1, 2, 8. 
Piper's Hill, 74. 
Pitchstone Porphyrites, 5. 
Plagioclase, 5, 14. 
Plant remains, 25, 26, 28. 
Porphyrite, 2-4, 18-21, 60. 

dykes, 61-63. 

Hills, view of, 9. 

Pophyrites South of Bowmont, 5-8; 
North of Bowmont, 8-12. 

Microscopical notes on, 12, IS. 

Presson, 1, 71, 72. 

Hill, 21. 

Pyroxene, 13. 


Quarries : — 

Whin-dyhes. — MaUilee."!, 64 ; Duddo, 
65 ; Bowsden, 66 ; Hazely Hill, 

Porphyrite. — Lanton, 61, 62 ; Flod- 
den, 12 ; Mindrummill, 11 ; 
Howtel, 12. 
Sandstone. — ICimmerston, 28 ; Corn- 
hill, 25 ; Twizell Mill, 26 ; 
Duncanhcugh, 26 ; Ford, 30 ; 
Blackhill, 47. 

See also Limestone. 
Quarry House, 45, 66. 
Quartz iu ash, 7, 8, 12 ; in porphyrite, 5. 

Vein, 15. 

Porphyry, 61, 64. 


Ked llhab and Dunstone, 16. 
Red Scar Wood, 82. 
Reedsford, 20, 79. 
Rhodes, J., 81. 
Rhodes, 29, 73. 
Rhodes Hill, 45. 
Riffington, 71, 73. 
Rosenbusch, H., 65. 
Roughton Linn, 2. 
Roxburgh Co., 1, 14. 


Sandbanks, 59. 

Sand Pits, see Glacial Sand and 

Sandy Bank, 72. 

House, 73, 8.S. 

Bum, 10, 18 J section, 18, 


Sear Limestone, 3, 16. 
Scotland, 18, 25, 41, 72. 
Scremerston, 32, 59. 
Coal Co., 41, 45. 



Scremerston Coal Group, 2, 3, 30 ; 
Account of, 32-49. 

Main Coal, 32, 35, 37, 40. 

Second Linthaugh, 81. 
Sedgwick, Rev. Prof. A., 16, 18, 89. 
Shell-marl, 84. ■ 
Shidlaw, 22, 23. 

Tile Works, 15, 22, 23, 72, 73. 

Shipton Dean, 29. 

Shotton, 4. 

Siakside Hill, 8. 

Skirinaked, 78. 

Slainsfield, 85, 41, 42, 45, 46, 68. 

Fault, 42, 45, 52, 68. 

Slains'Wood, 68. 
Smith's Geological Map, IS. 
Smithy Dean Bum, 26. 
Southmoor, 53. 
Spirorbis carbonarius, 20. 

. helicteres, 24, 26. 

Stevenson, W., 89. 

St. Cttthbert's, 72, 73, 80. 

St. Paul, Sir Horace, 81. 

StichlU, 14. 

Stigmaria, 17, 20. 

Stone Coal, 35. 

Stony Coal Seam, 35-37, 39. 

Strike of Porphyrites, 4, 10. 

Saanylaws, 15, 23, 72, 84, 85. 

Swallow Holes, 57. 


Tate, Geo., 16, 29, 78, 89, 90. 

Teall, J. J. H., 6, 13, 14, 60, 63, 90. 

Thirlings, 83. 

Tholeites, 65. 

Thomson, E. D., 15, 22, 40, 41', 43,89. 

Dr. T., 15, 89. 

Thompson's Walls, 8. 
Thornington, 11, 12, 78. 
Threaplea Plantation, 57. 
Three Quarter Coal Seam, 32, 34-38, 

40, 42-45, 
Tileworks— Duddo, 73 ; Shidlawj- 73 ; 

Doddington, 81 ; Ewart, 81 ; Flod- 

den, 81. 
Till or Boulder Clay, 71, 76. 
Till Kivcr, 1, 3, 4, 15, 16, 25, 26, 27, 

29, 30, 65, 71, 72,.76, 80-84. 

Eaviue of, 2, 83. 

Tillmouth, 2, 80. 

Park, 25, 86. 

Tills, 36. 

Tindle House, 27, 29, 30. 

Tiptoe, 26, 65, 71, 72, 83. 

Tithehill, 84. 

Tom Tallon's Crag, 8, 64. 

Topley, W., 90. 

Torleehouse, 64. 

Trough Burn, 61. 

Troughhurn House, 7. . ■ , 

Trows, The, 7, 78. 

Tweed Eiver, 1, S, 14-16, 22, 24, 25, 
27, 64, 65, 71, 77, 80, 83. 

Valley, 15,19, 71. 

Twizell, 80, 83. 

Castle, 26. 

Mill, 36. 

Station, 25. 

Tuedian Formation, 17, 29, 48; 
Historical Sketch of, 15 ; Characters 
of, 16; Descnption of, 18-28. 

Tuperee, 20. 

Tuppie's Sike, 78. 

Unconformable junction, 18. 

Veins, 4, 11, 12, 1.5,70. 

Wallis, J., 8."), 89. 

Wark, 1, 23, 24, 74, 76, 77, 80, 85. 

East Common, 23, 72. 

West Commoft, 15, 72. 

Watch Hill, 12. 

• (Wooler), 5, 7, 8. 

Watchlaw, 2, !j2, 53, 56, 68. 

Limestone, 54, 55, 69. 

Weeper Island, 1, , ,, 

Wester or Westeran Coai, 32, 34 35 
42,46,47,49. ' ' . • 

West Learmoutb, 15, 24. 

Moneylaws, 21, 23. 

Wester Tor, 8, 64. 

Westwood Moor, 9, Fig. '' 

Whaup Moor, 8, 78. 

Whin dykes, 24, 25, 43, 54. 

Whistlebare, 5S. 

Whitehall, 64, 70. 

White Hill, 5, 8, 64. 



Whitehill Plantation, 28. 
White Law, 4. 
Whitelee, 54, 56, 57, 68. 
Whitton Hill, 18. 
Wideopen Head, 5. 
Willow Burn, 1, 24. 
Winch, N. J., 15, 16, 84, 89. 
Winterburn Quarry, 51-53, 55, 68. 
Wishing Well, 5. 
Witham, T., 16,25, 89. 
Wood,N., 16,89. 
Woodend, 1, 52, 54, 55, 68. 

Coal, 50, 55, 56. 

Limestone, 50-57, 67, 68. 

Woodside, 51, 52, 54-57, 66. 

Wooler, 1, 3-5, 9, 20, 61, 73, 78, 80. 

Common, 7. 

Moor, 5. 

Water, 1, 73. 


Yeavering Bell, 2, 61. 
Yoredale Kocks, 3, 16. 
Yorkshire, 3, 16, 50. 


Zeolite, 15. 


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COAL-FIELDSi — Scale, one inch to a mile. 
Anglesey, 78 (SW). 
Bristol and Somerset, 19, S5. 
Coalhrook Dale. ei:(NU a SB)., 
CleeHill,53(NE,NW>.' ; 

Fhntshireand Denffighahire, 74 (NE & SB), 79 (NB, SE). 
Derby and Yorkshire, 71 (NW, NE, ft SB), 82 (NW &SW), 

Si (NE),87 (NE, SE), 88 (SE). 
Forest of Dean, 43 (SB & SW). 
Forest of Wyre, 61 (SB), 65 (NE). 
Lancashire, 80 (NW),81 (NW), 89,88 (SW, NW). 
Leicestershire, 71 (SW),6S (NW). 

Northumberland^ Durham, 103, 105,106 (SB), 109(SW,SE) . 
N. Staffordshire:^ {SWV5lX.CSEW»(NE),SO(8E),81(SW). 
S, Staffordshire, wrrP»(rtf,%S5l9W>K- ■; - /'. . Z 
Shrewsbury. 80 (NB), fil (NW & SW}. 
South Wales, 36, 37, .IS, 40, 41, 42 (SE, SW). yew Senc.'i, 349. 
Warwickshire, 62 (NE, SE),(W(NW.SW),54 (NK),r,3 (H W). 
Whitehaven, 101 (NW, NB, SW.). 
Yorkshire, 88 (NB,SB),87 (SW),92 (SE). 93 (SW). 


Scale, NIX inclies to a mile. 
The Coal-field8,.^nd' other mineral 4istri,et>i of the N. of 

England are puhiiSned on a scale of six inches to a mile, 

at 48. to 6s. each. MS. Coloured Copies of other six-inch 

maps, not intended for publication, are deposited for refer- 
ence in the Geological Survey Office, 28, Jermyn Street, 

London. ■ 


Sheet 13, Ireleth.— 16, Ulverstone.— 17, Oartmel.— 22, 
Aldingham.— 47, Clitheroe.— 48, Colne.— 49 LaueshawBr,— 
85, Whalley.— ?6, Hacgate.— 67, Winewall.— (il, Preston.— 
62, Balderstone.— 68, Aecrington.— 61, Burnley.— lis, Stiper- 
den Moor.— 39,, Layl^hdi— 70, Blackburn.— 71, Haslingden.— 
72, Cliviger, Baoup.— 73, 'Todniorden.^7f, Chorley.— 78, 
Bolton - le - Moors..^79, Entwistle.- 80, TottingtOn.— 81, 
Wardle.— 84, Ormskirk.— 85, Standish.— 86, Adlipgtbn.- 
87, Bolton-le-Moors.— S8,Bury, Hey wood.— 89, Rochdale, &c. 
.— H2, Biokerstaffe.— !B, Wigan.— 94, West Houghton.- 
9S, liadclifPe.- 96, Middleton, Hrestwioh.- 97, Oldham.— 100, 
Knowsley.— 101, BiUinge.- 102, Leigh,Lowton.— 103, Ashley, 
Eccles.— 104; Manchester, Salford.— 105, Ashton-under- 
Lvne.— 106, LiV6rpool.-107, Prescott.— 108, St. Helen's.— 
10(1. Winwick.— Ill, Cheodale.— 112, Stockport.- lis. Part 
of Liverpool. 


Sheet 1, Ryton.— 2jGateshoari.— 3, Jarrow.— 4, S. SlileldB.' 
—5, Greenside.— 6, Winlaton.— 7, Washington. — 8, SuUder- 
land.— 9, Pt. of Hunstanworth.— 10, BdmondbyerB — 
11, Bbohester.-12, Tantoby.— IS, Chester-le-St —IB, Killhope 
Moor.— 16, Hunstanworth.— 17, Waskerley.— 18, Mngglea- 


The produce of Coals, Metallic Ores, and other Minerals. By R. Hum. From 1863 to 1866, inclusive. Is. 6<J each 
1858,Por</.,ls. 6ii.; Port r/., 5s. 1869. Is. 6rf. 1860, S». 6(J. 1S61, 2s.; and Appendix, Is. 1862, 2s. 6d. 1863. 2s ed' 
1864, 2s- 1865, 2s. 6d. 1866 to 1874, and 1SI76 to 1880, 2s. each. (These Statistics are now published by the Bome QMee.) ' 


Parti. The North and North Midland Counties of England (Out of print). Part II. South Staffordshire. Price Ijt 
Part III. South Wales. Price is. 3d. Part IV. The Shropshire Coal-field and North Staffordshire. Is. Hd. 

Surbam — cmitinued. 

wick — 19, Lanchester. — ^20, Hetton-le-Hole. — 22, Wear Head. 
—33, Ea^gatK— Jt4, Stanhope).- 26, iyolsiMKham.--2e, Bran- 
eepeth,— 80, Beriny Seat.— 32, White Kirkley.— S3, Ham- 
sterley.— 34, Whitworth.~38, Maize Beck.^4l) Cookfield — 
42, Bp. Auckland.— 46, Hawksley Hill Ho.— 52, Barnard 
Castle. — 53, Winston. 

Wortbumberland. . - ' 

Sheet 44, Eothbury.- 45, Longframlington.— 46i Uroom- 
hill. — 47, Coquet Island.— 54, Longhorsley,— 85, Ulfthttm.— 
66, Druridge Bay.— 68, Netherwitton.— 64, Morpet1j.i-«B, 
Newbiggin.— 72, Bedlingcon.— 73, Blyth.— 80, Cramnngttili — 
81, Earadon.— 82, NE. of Gilsland.— 8S, Coadley (3^ — 87 
Heddod.— 88, Lo(«g Benton.- 89, Tynemouth.— 91, (Sreen- 
head.— 92, Hultwhistle.— 93, HaydonBridge.— 94, Hexham.— 
96, Corbridge. -96, Uorsley .— 97, NewcastlK— aSj Walker.— 
101, Whitfield —102, Alleiitlalel'own.- 108, Slaley.— 106, New- 
lands.— 108, Blackpool Br:— 107, Alleiidale.—108, Blanchland 
-109, Shotley field.— no, Wellhope.— Ill, 112, Allenheads. 


Sheet 24 (and 264) Kirkby Ravens *orth.-65, Searness.— 
66, Skiddaw.— 63, Thackthwaite.— B*, Keswick.— 65, Dock- 
rave. — 69, Buttermere.— 70, Grange.— 71, Helvellvn.— 74 

Wastwater.- 7.5, StonethwaiteFell. ' 


Sheet 2, Tees Head.— 6, Dufton Pell.— 12, Patterdale.— 18 
Near Grasmere. — 26, Grasmero — 38, Kendal. ,' 

Vorksbire. , 

Sheets, Lune Forest.- -7, Redcar.— 8, 9, ^Itburn 4o— 11 
Cotherstone Moor.— 12, Bowes.- IS, VVvdifTsi.— 17, Guisboro'' 
—20, Lythe.— 24, Kirkby Ravensworth.— 26, Aldboronich — 
S^ 33, Whitby.— S8, MaTske.-S9, Richmond.— 46, Little 
Beck.— 47, Robin Hood's Bay.— 53, Downholme.— 68, Lev- 
bouriie-— 82,Kidstones.--84,E. Witton.— 97, Foxup.~98. Ki& 
Gill.-99, Hadon Carr— 100, Lofthouse.— 116, Amolifte.— 116 
Conistone.Moor.— 133, Kirkby Malham.— 162, Biubbra-housBsI 
^i84t Dale JSnd.— 186, Klldwiok.- 200, Keighley— 2m 
Bingley.— 202, CftlVerlBy.- 2t)fL Seacroft.— 204, Aberford -- 
215, Peeke WeU.— 216, Bradford.- 217, Calverley — 218 
Leeds.— 219. Kippax.— 231, Halifax— 232, Birsti'.- ass' 
East Ardsley.— 2S4, Castleford.— 246, Hudderstteld — 247'' 
DewBbury.— 248, Wakefield.- 249, Pontefract.— a50,T)aiTinKl 
ton.— 260, Honley.— 261, Kirkburton.— 262, Dartoh.— 2© 
Hemsworth. — 264, Campsall. — 872, Holmflrth. — 278, Peni- 
stone.— 274, Bamsley.- 276, Darfleld.— 276, Brodsworth — 
281, Langsell.— 282, Wortlfey.— 288, Wath upon Deame"- 
284, Conjsborough.'-^287, Low Bradford.— 288, Ecolesfield'— 
289, Rotherham.— 290, Braithwell.— 298, Hallam Moors'— 
295, Handswdrth.- 296, Laughton-en-le-Morthen.— 299 
Waleswood.— 300, Harthil). ' - "^